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Chlorobenzene

About: Chlorobenzene is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3787 publications have been published within this topic receiving 56638 citations. The topic is also known as: benzene chloride & phenyl chloride.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The dielectric loss factor and permittivity of 8-16 mol% solutions of chlorobenzene, o−dichlorobenzenes, and 1-chloronaphthalene in cis-decalin were measured by DTA as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The dielectric loss factor and dielectric permittivity of 8–16 mol% solutions of chlorobenzene, o‐dichlorobenzene, and 1‐chloronaphthalene in cis‐decalin; 50–60 mol% mixtures of pyridine with chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, 1‐chloronaphthalene, and toluene; 50–60 mol% mixtures of tetrahydrofuran with bromobenzene and 1‐chloronaphthalene; the pure liquids cis‐decalin, o‐terphenyl, iso‐propylbenzene, propylene carbonate; and two fused salt systems, 45 mol% Ca(NO3)2–KNO3 mixture and Ca(NO3)2·4H2O have been measured from 50 Hz to 1 × 105 Hz from − 196° in the vitreous state to about 30° above their respective glass transition temperatures. The Tg's of the organic glasses have been measured by DTA. With the exception of propylene carbonate, all glasses show the presence of one secondary relaxation between − 196° and their respective Tg's either as a peak or shoulder in a tanδ–temperature plot at a single frequency, or in the dielectric loss spectrum. Arrhenius plots of the frequency of maximum loss against temper...

1,519 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present data supporting a previously sug gested alternative dual-mode model of sorption in which dissolution and hole-filling mechanisms take place concurrently, as in glassy organic polymers.
Abstract: The widely accepted dissolution (partition) model of sorption to soil organic matter (SOM) has been challenged by evidence that SOM has a non-uniform sorption potential. This study presents data supporting a previously sug gested alternative dual-mode model of sorption in which dissolution and hole-filling mechanisms take place concurrently, as in glassy organic polymers. The holes are postulated to be nanometer-size voids within the organic matrix that provide complexation sites. The main focus was on sorption of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,3-dichlorobenzene, but some experiments were carried out also on 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicide metolachlor. Sorption from water to high-organic soils, humic acid particles, and poly(vinyl chloride) is nonlinear, competitive, and predictably responsive to conditions that affect hole populations such as temperature and co-solvent addition. Sorption to a peat soil and its components became progressively nonlinear and competitive in the order humic ac...

761 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a thermal annealing process was applied to a blend of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) to achieve a power conversion efficiency of 3% under air mass 1.5 simulated solar illumination.
Abstract: Here we report enhanced efficiency bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using blend films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) that are subjected to a thermal annealing process. Blend films (P3HT:PCBM=1:1 by weight) were prepared using chlorobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene in order to investigate the role of the solvent. Irrespective of the chosen solvent, the optimal device annealing temperature was found to be 140 °C. The highest power conversion efficiency, 3% under air mass 1.5 simulated solar illumination (100mW∕cm2), was achieved by device annealing at 140 °C for 15 min using blend films prepared from chlorobenzene (2.3% for 1,2-dichlorobenzene).

709 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of the solvent on the morphol. and performance of polymer solar cells was studied in devices based on blends of the polyfluorene copolymer, poly(2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorenea)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2', 1',3'-benzothiadiazole)), and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid Me ester.
Abstract: The influence of the solvent on the morphol. and performance of polymer solar cells was studied in devices based on blends of the polyfluorene copolymer, poly(2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2', 1',3'-benzothiadiazole)), and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid Me ester. The blends are spin-coated from CHCl3 or from CHCl3 mixed with small amts. of xylene, toluene, or chlorobenzene. The devices are characterized under monochromatic light and AM1.5 solar illumination. An enhancement of the photocurrent d. was obsd. in diodes made from CHCl3 mixed with chlorobenzene, and a decreased photocurrent d. is obsd. in diodes made from CHCl3 mixed with xylene or toluene, compared to diodes made from neat CHCl3. The open-circuit voltages are almost the same for all diodes. The surfaces of the active layers were imaged with AFM. Height images indicate that a finer and more uniform distribution of domains corresponds to the diodes with enhanced photocurrent that are made from CHCl3 mixed with chlorobenzene, while a structure with larger domains is assocd. with the lower photocurrents in the diodes made from CHCl3 mixed with xylene or toluene. The influence of the morphol. on the excited-state dynamics and charge generation was studied using time-resolved spectroscopy. Fast formation of bound charge pairs followed by their conversion into free charge carriers was resolved, and excitation-intensity-dependent non-geminate recombination of free charges was obsd. A significant enhancement in free-charge-carrier generation was obsd. on introducing chlorobenzene into CHCl3. Imaging photocurrent generation from the solar cells with a light-pulse technique shows an inhomogeneous photocurrent distribution, which is related to the undulations in the thickness of the active layer. Thicker parts of the diodes yield higher photocurrent values. [on SciFinder (R)]

445 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The degradation of chlorobenzene and its oxidation products by hydroxyl radicals generated with Fenton's reagent was studied in this paper, where the pH dependence and product distributions suggest that complexes of aromatic intermediate compounds with iron and oxygen may play a role in regulating reaction pathways.
Abstract: The degradation of chlorobenzene and its oxidation products by hydroxyl radicals generated with Fenton's reagent was studied. In the absence of oxygen, chlorophenols, dichlorobiphenyls (DCBs), and phenolic polymers were the predominant initial products. In the presence of oxygen, DCB yields decreased markedly and chlorobenzoquinone was also formed. Chlorophenol isomers were further oxidized by OH's to form chlorinated and nonchlorinated diols. DCBs and the phenolic polymers were also oxidized. The highest yield of product formed per mole of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumed was observed in the pH range of 2-3. The pH dependence and product distributions suggest that complexes of aromatic intermediate compounds with iron and oxygen may play a role in regulating reaction pathways. At pH 3.0, approximately 5 mol of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/mol of chlorobenzene were required to remove all of the aromatic intermediate compounds from solution.

393 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023109
2022232
202157
202064
201995
201894