About: Chromatin is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 50794 publications have been published within this topic receiving 2709057 citations. The topic is also known as: Chromatin & GO:0000785.
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TL;DR: The surface of nucleosomes is studded with a multiplicity of modifications that can dictate the higher-order chromatin structure in which DNA is packaged and can orchestrate the ordered recruitment of enzyme complexes to manipulate DNA.
Abstract: The surface of nucleosomes is studded with a multiplicity of modifications. At least eight different classes have been characterized to date and many different sites have been identified for each class. Operationally, modifications function either by disrupting chromatin contacts or by affecting the recruitment of nonhistone proteins to chromatin. Their presence on histones can dictate the higher-order chromatin structure in which DNA is packaged and can orchestrate the ordered recruitment of enzyme complexes to manipulate DNA. In this way, histone modifications have the potential to influence many fundamental biological processes, some of which may be epigenetically inherited.
TL;DR: It is found that the boundaries of topological domains are enriched for the insulator binding protein CTCF, housekeeping genes, transfer RNAs and short interspersed element (SINE) retrotransposons, indicating that these factors may have a role in establishing the topological domain structure of the genome.
Abstract: The spatial organization of the genome is intimately linked to its biological function, yet our understanding of higher order genomic structure is coarse, fragmented and incomplete. In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, interphase chromosomes occupy distinct chromosome territories, and numerous models have been proposed for how chromosomes fold within chromosome territories. These models, however, provide only few mechanistic details about the relationship between higher order chromatin structure and genome function. Recent advances in genomic technologies have led to rapid advances in the study of three-dimensional genome organization. In particular, Hi-C has been introduced as a method for identifying higher order chromatin interactions genome wide. Here we investigate the three-dimensional organization of the human and mouse genomes in embryonic stem cells and terminally differentiated cell types at unprecedented resolution. We identify large, megabase-sized local chromatin interaction domains, which we term 'topological domains', as a pervasive structural feature of the genome organization. These domains correlate with regions of the genome that constrain the spread of heterochromatin. The domains are stable across different cell types and highly conserved across species, indicating that topological domains are an inherent property of mammalian genomes. Finally, we find that the boundaries of topological domains are enriched for the insulator binding protein CTCF, housekeeping genes, transfer RNAs and short interspersed element (SINE) retrotransposons, indicating that these factors may have a role in establishing the topological domain structure of the genome.
TL;DR: In this paper, a histone H2AX species that has been phosphorylated specifically at serine 139 was found to be a major component of DNA double-stranded break.
Abstract: When mammalian cell cultures or mice are exposed to ionizing radiation in survivable or lethal amounts, novel mass components are found in the histone H2A region of two-dimensional gels Collectively referred to as γ, these components are formed in vivo by several procedures that introduce double-stranded breaks into DNA γ-Components, which appeared to be the only major novel components detected by mass or 32PO4incorporation on acetic acid-urea-Triton X-100-acetic acid-urea-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or SDS-acetic acid-urea-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide gels after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation, are shown to be histone H2AX species that have been phosphorylated specifically at serine 139 γ-H2AX appears rapidly after exposure of cell cultures to ionizing radiation; half-maximal amounts are reached by 1 min and maximal amounts by 10 min At the maximum, approximately 1% of the H2AX becomes γ-phosphorylated per gray of ionizing radiation, a finding that indicates that 35 DNA double-stranded breaks, the number introduced by each gray into the 6 × 109 base pairs of a mammalian G1 genome, leads to the γ-phosphorylation of H2AX distributed over 1% of the chromatin Thus, about 003% of the chromatin appears to be involved per DNA double-stranded break This value, which corresponds to about 2 × 106 base pairs of DNA per double-stranded break, indicates that large amounts of chromatin are involved with each DNA double-stranded break Thus, γ-H2AX formation is a rapid and sensitive cellular response to the presence of DNA double-stranded breaks, a response that may provide insight into higher order chromatin structures
TL;DR: It is proposed that bivalent domains silence developmental genes in ES cells while keeping them poised for activation, highlighting the importance of DNA sequence in defining the initial epigenetic landscape and suggesting a novel chromatin-based mechanism for maintaining pluripotency.
Abstract: The most highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs) in mammalian genomes cluster within regions enriched for genes encoding developmentally important transcription factors (TFs). This suggests that HCNE-rich regions may contain key regulatory controls involved in development. We explored this by examining histone methylation in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells across 56 large HCNE-rich loci. We identified a specific modification pattern, termed "bivalent domains," consisting of large regions of H3 lysine 27 methylation harboring smaller regions of H3 lysine 4 methylation. Bivalent domains tend to coincide with TF genes expressed at low levels. We propose that bivalent domains silence developmental genes in ES cells while keeping them poised for activation. We also found striking correspondences between genome sequence and histone methylation in ES cells, which become notably weaker in differentiated cells. These results highlight the importance of DNA sequence in defining the initial epigenetic landscape and suggest a novel chromatin-based mechanism for maintaining pluripotency.
TL;DR: The feasibility of analyzing an individual's epigenome on a timescale compatible with clinical decision-making is demonstrated and classes of DNA-binding factors that strictly avoided, could tolerate or tended to overlap with nucleosomes are discovered.
Abstract: We describe an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq), based on direct in vitro transposition of sequencing adaptors into native chromatin, as a rapid and sensitive method for integrative epigenomic analysis. ATAC-seq captures open chromatin sites using a simple two-step protocol with 500-50,000 cells and reveals the interplay between genomic locations of open chromatin, DNA-binding proteins, individual nucleosomes and chromatin compaction at nucleotide resolution. We discovered classes of DNA-binding factors that strictly avoided, could tolerate or tended to overlap with nucleosomes. Using ATAC-seq maps of human CD4(+) T cells from a proband obtained on consecutive days, we demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing an individual's epigenome on a timescale compatible with clinical decision-making.
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