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About: Chromia is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1860 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 39167 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A series of catalysts of manganese oxide supported on TiO 2 and iron–manganese oxide supported on TiO 2 with different amounts of manganese and iron were studied for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with ammonia in the presence of excess oxygen. It was found that the addition of iron oxide not only increased the NO conversion and N 2 selectivity but also increased the resistance to H 2 O and SO 2 . The Fe–Mn/TiO 2 catalysts yield high activities and high N 2 product selectivity. The N 2 O product selectivity increased with the amount of MnO x as well as temperature. Crystalline phase of MnO x was present at ≥15% Mn on TiO 2 , and the amount increased with Mn content. In addition, SO 2 and H 2 O decreased the activities only slightly, while such effect was reversible. The Fe–Mn/TiO 2 with Mn/Fe=1 showed the highest activity. The results showed that this catalyst yielded nearly 100% NO conversion at 120 °C at a space velocity of 15,000 h −1 . The effect of oxygen was also studied. Reversible transient behaviors similar to that on other oxide catalysts, including vanadia and chromia, were observed for the Fe–Mn/TiO 2 catalyst.

473 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Alloys protected from corrosion by a chromia scale and LaCrO{sub 3}-based perovskites are used as materials for the interconnect of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The chromium vaporization of these materials was studied by thermochemical modeling. Partial pressures of the vaporizing species were determined for different O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations in the oxidizing gas. CrO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) and CrO{sub 3}(g) are the most abundant species in air with and without humidity, respectively. The potential of the Cr-containing vapor species for the degradation of the electrical properties of an SOFC was analyzed by thermodynamic computations. The electrochemical reduction of the Cr-containing vapor species at the cathode/electrolyte/gas phase boundary can lead to polarization losses.

468 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The kinetics of oxide formation in the presence of water vapour are discussed and compared with oxidation in dry atmospheres. The main protective oxide systems are considered, i.e. alumina, chromia, silica, titania and iron and nickel oxides, and with the possible exceptions of alumina and nickel oxide, oxidation rates are increased by the presence of water vapour. Scale morphology is also influenced by water vapour, and an important observation is that whisker formation is encouraged; this is believed to be due to the more rapid dissociation of water vapour compared to oxygen. In general, water vapour promotes the formation of a more porous scale. This is related to an increase in cation diffusion and consequent vacancy condensation, thereby developing a porous structure. The thermochemistry of oxide formation is discussed, and here oxide stability and hydroxide formation are considered. A significant observation is that where hydroxides or oxyhydroxides form, they generally have higher volatility than the corresponding oxide, and this leads to loss of protection. The effect of water vapour on oxide growth processes is considered. It is demonstrated that all aspects of oxide growth including adsorption, dissociation and diffusion of reactants are altered in the presence of water vapour compared with similar processes in dry conditions. The important first stages of the reaction involving adsorption and dissociation are controlled by the catalytic activity and acid base nature of oxides. For oxides formed at high temperatures very limited information is available, but, in general, data obtained at room temperature is confirmed and strongly suggests that dissociation of any gas molecule is favoured by defects in the surface. Dissociation of water seems to be more rapid at lower temperatures than, for example, oxygen, but this difference may be less pronounced at higher temperatures. Fast diffusion of water in oxides is possible due to “proton hopping”, in which protons localised at oxide ions move by transfer from one oxygen to another. Since the OH− ion concentration is increased there is a resultant increase in cation vacancies, and this, in part, is responsible for the observed increase in oxidation rates. A further factor to consider is the possibility of molecular diffusion, and it has been demonstrated that where pores or voids are present in the scale, and the void contains both hydrogen and water vapour, oxidation of the surface nearest the metal will occur by reaction with water to form new oxide and the reaction product hydrogen, while a reduction reaction occurs at the surface of the void nearest the gas phase to produce water vapour. Thus it can be seen that this process provides for rapid inward diffusion of oxygen while the void gradually moves outwards from the metal/oxide interface to the oxide/gas interface. Finally, the review considers the effect of water vapour on the mechanical properties of the scale. Scale adhesion can be improved (iron oxides) or made worse (alumina and chromia) by the presence of water vapour. It is shown that while there is experimental evidence for altered mechanical behaviour, there is very little data on relevant mechanical properties. It is possible, therefore, that water vapour either alters mechanical properties of some oxides, or, as has been demonstrated, the oxide growth process has been changed. Alternatively, at least for the cases where increased oxidation rates were caused by the presence of water vapour, the observed differences between wet and dry behaviour may simply be a function of the greater scale thickness. A significant effort has been made to develop models that can be used to predict the onset scale spallation observed in industrial boilers using process steam. The further development of these models is strongly dependent upon obtaining relevant input data, and this is considered a major challenge for materials scientists. Some areas for future research are proposed.

431 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Roughness-insensitive and electrically controllable magnetization at the (0001) surface of antiferromagnetic chromia is observed using magnetometry and spin-resolved photoemission measurements and explained by the interplay of surface termination and magnetic ordering. Further, this surface in placed in proximity with a ferromagnetic Co/Pd multilayer film. Exchange coupling across the interface between chromia and Co/Pd induces an electrically controllable exchange bias in the Co/Pd film, which enables a reversible isothermal (at room temperature) shift of the global magnetic hysteresis loop of the Co/Pd film along the magnetic field axis between negative and positive values. These results reveal the potential of magnetoelectric chromia for spintronic applications requiring non-volatile electric control of magnetization.

394 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Sukhvinder P.S. Badwal1, R. Deller1, K. Foger1, Y. Ramprakash1, J.P. Zhang1 
02 Aug 1997-Solid State Ionics
Abstract: The performance of solid oxide fuel cells, especially on the air side, degrades very rapidly when chromia forming alloys are used as interconnects in contact with electrodes. The effect of chromia forming alloys on the performance of doped LaMnO3 air electrode has been studied at the current fuel cell operating temperatures in the vicinity of 900–1000 °C. Interactions between a chromium-rich alloy and doped LaMnO3 were studied during testing of fuel cell stacks as well as in specially designed electrochemical experiments. On completion of these experiments interconnect/electrode and electrode/ electrolyte interfaces as well as interconnect, electrode and electrolyte materials were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy. A mechanism for cell performance degradation based on these observations has been proposed.

303 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

David J. Young

42 papers, 1.1K citations

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Henri Buscail

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