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Chromosome aberration

About: Chromosome aberration is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3252 publications have been published within this topic receiving 78002 citations.


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TL;DR: Intratumor heterogeneity can lead to underestimation of the tumor genomics landscape portrayed from single tumor-biopsy samples and may present major challenges to personalized-medicine and biomarker development.
Abstract: Background Intratumor heterogeneity may foster tumor evolution and adaptation and hinder personalized-medicine strategies that depend on results from single tumor-biopsy samples. Methods To examine intratumor heterogeneity, we performed exome sequencing, chromosome aberration analysis, and ploidy profiling on multiple spatially separated samples obtained from primary renal carcinomas and associated metastatic sites. We characterized the consequences of intratumor heterogeneity using immunohistochemical analysis, mutation functional analysis, and profiling of messenger RNA expression. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed branched evolutionary tumor growth, with 63 to 69% of all somatic mutations not detectable across every tumor region. Intratumor heterogeneity was observed for a mutation within an autoinhibitory domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, correlating with S6 and 4EBP phosphorylation in vivo and constitutive activation of mTOR kinase activity in vitro. Mutational intratumor heterogeneity was seen for multiple tumor-suppressor genes converging on loss of function; SETD2, PTEN, and KDM5C underwent multiple distinct and spatially separated inactivating mutations within a single tumor, suggesting convergent phenotypic evolution. Gene-expression signatures of good and poor prognosis were detected in different regions of the same tumor. Allelic composition and ploidy profiling analysis revealed extensive intratumor heterogeneity, with 26 of 30 tumor samples from four tumors harboring divergent allelic-imbalance profiles and with ploidy heterogeneity in two of four tumors. Conclusions Intratumor heterogeneity can lead to underestimation of the tumor genomics landscape portrayed from single tumor-biopsy samples and may present major challenges to personalized-medicine and biomarker development. Intratumor heterogeneity, associated with heterogeneous protein function, may foster tumor adaptation and therapeutic failure through Darwinian selection. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and others.)

6,672 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Chromosome abnormalities were found in 276 liveborn children and in 19 fetuses, who were aborted after prenatal chromosome examination, the combined incidence of sex chromosomal and autosomal abnormalities was 1 per 118 children or 8.45 per 1000 children.
Abstract: As part of a larger prospective study of the influence of environmental factors on pregnancy, birth and the fetus, chromosome examinations have been made in 34910 newborn children in Arhus over a 13-year period. Klinefelter's syndrome was found in 1 per 576 boys, XYY in 1 per 851 boys, triple-X in 1 per 947 girls and Turner's syndrome in 1 per 1893 girls. Other sex chromosome aberrations were found in 1 per 11,637 children. The total incidence of sex chromosome abnormalities was 1 per 426 children or 2.34 per 1000. The most frequent autosomal abnormalities were that of Down's syndrome with 1 per 592 children, and reciprocal translocations with 1 per 712 children. The total incidence of autosomal abnormalities was 1 per 164 children. Chromosome abnormalities were found in 276 liveborn children and in 19 fetuses, who were aborted after prenatal chromosome examination. The combined incidence of sex chromosomal and autosomal abnormalities was 1 per 118 children or 8.45 per 1000 children.

988 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Chromosome analysis revealed that most metaphase‐arrested Rad51− cells carried isochromatid‐type breaks, indicating that Rad51 fulfils an essential role in the repair of spontaneously occurring chromosome breaks in proliferating cells of higher eukaryotes.
Abstract: Yeast rad51 mutants are viable, but extremely sensitive to gamma-rays due to defective repair of double-strand breaks. In contrast, disruption of the murine RAD51 homologue is lethal, indicating an essential role of Rad51 in vertebrate cells. We generated clones of the chicken B lymphocyte line DT40 carrying a human RAD51 transgene under the control of a repressible promoter and subsequently disrupted the endogenous RAD51 loci. Upon inhibition of the RAD51 transgene, Rad51- cells accumulated in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle before dying. Chromosome analysis revealed that most metaphase-arrested Rad51- cells carried isochromatid-type breaks. In conclusion, Rad51 fulfils an essential role in the repair of spontaneously occurring chromosome breaks in proliferating cells of higher eukaryotes.

823 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most commonly studied genotoxicity endpoints have been selected for inclusion in this document and they are structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations assessed using cytogenetic methods (classical chromosomal aberration analysis (CA), fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), micronuclei (MN), DNA damage (adducts, strand breaks, crosslinking, alkali-labile sites) assessed using bio-chemical/electrophoretic assays or sister chromatid exchanges (SCE); protein adducts; and hypoxanthine-
Abstract: The purpose of these guidelines is to provide concise guidance on the planning, performing and interpretation of studies to monitor groups or individuals exposed to genotoxic agents. Most human carcinogens are genotoxic but not all genotoxic agents have been shown to be carcinogenic in humans. Although the main interest in these studies is due to the association of genotoxicity with carcinogenicity, there is also an inherent interest in monitoring human genotoxicity independently of cancer as an endpoint. The most often studied genotoxicity endpoints have been selected for inclusion in this document and they are structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations assessed using cytogenetic methods (classical chromosomal aberration analysis (CA), fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), micronuclei (MN)); DNA damage (adducts, strand breaks, crosslinking, alkali-labile sites) assessed using bio-chemical/electrophoretic assays or sister chromatid exchanges (SCE); protein adducts; and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) mutations. The document does not consider germ cells or gene mutation assays other than HPRT or markers of oxidative stress, which have been applied on a more limited scale.

756 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of chromosome aberrations in two glioma cell lines using biotinylated DNA library probes indicates the power of these methods for pinpointing chromosome segments that are altered in specific types of tumors.
Abstract: Chromosome aberrations in two glioma cell lines were analyzed using biotinylated DNA library probes that specifically decorate chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 18 and 22 from pter to qter. Numerical changes, deletions and rearrangements of these chromosomes were radily visualized in metaphase spreads, as well as in early prophase and interphase nuclei. Complete chromosomes, deleted chromosomes and segments of translocated chromosomes were rapidly delineated in very complex karyotypes. Simultaneous hybridizations with additional subregional probes were used to further define aberrant chromosomes. Digital image analysis was used to quantitate the total complement of specific chromosomal DNAs in individual metaphase and interphase cells of each cell line. In spite of the fact that both glioma lines have been passaged in vitro for many years, an under-representation of chromosome 22 and an over-representation of chromosome 7 (specifically 7p) were observed. These observations agree with previous studies on gliomas. In addition, sequences of chromosome 4 were also found to be under-represented, especially in TC 593. These analyses indicate the power of these methods for pinpointing chromosome segments that are altered in specific types of tumors.

572 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20237
202228
202158
202059
201950
201858