Topic

# Circulant matrix

About: Circulant matrix is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3476 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 50116 citation(s).

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TL;DR: A new kernelized correlation filter is derived, that unlike other kernel algorithms has the exact same complexity as its linear counterpart, which is called dual correlation filter (DCF), which outperform top-ranking trackers such as Struck or TLD on a 50 videos benchmark, despite being implemented in a few lines of code.

Abstract: The core component of most modern trackers is a discriminative classifier, tasked with distinguishing between the target and the surrounding environment. To cope with natural image changes, this classifier is typically trained with translated and scaled sample patches. Such sets of samples are riddled with redundancies—any overlapping pixels are constrained to be the same. Based on this simple observation, we propose an analytic model for datasets of thousands of translated patches. By showing that the resulting data matrix is circulant, we can diagonalize it with the discrete Fourier transform, reducing both storage and computation by several orders of magnitude. Interestingly, for linear regression our formulation is equivalent to a correlation filter, used by some of the fastest competitive trackers. For kernel regression, however, we derive a new kernelized correlation filter (KCF), that unlike other kernel algorithms has the exact same complexity as its linear counterpart. Building on it, we also propose a fast multi-channel extension of linear correlation filters, via a linear kernel, which we call dual correlation filter (DCF). Both KCF and DCF outperform top-ranking trackers such as Struck or TLD on a 50 videos benchmark, despite running at hundreds of frames-per-second, and being implemented in a few lines of code (Algorithm 1). To encourage further developments, our tracking framework was made open-source.

3,880 citations

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01 Jan 1977TL;DR: The fundamental theorems on the asymptotic behavior of eigenvalues, inverses, and products of banded Toeplitz matrices and Toepler matrices with absolutely summable elements are derived in a tutorial manner in the hope of making these results available to engineers lacking either the background or endurance to attack the mathematical literature on the subject.

Abstract: The fundamental theorems on the asymptotic behavior of eigenvalues, inverses, and products of banded Toeplitz matrices and Toeplitz matrices with absolutely summable elements are derived in a tutorial manner. Mathematical elegance and generality are sacrificed for conceptual simplicity and insight in the hope of making these results available to engineers lacking either the background or endurance to attack the mathematical literature on the subject. By limiting the generality of the matrices considered, the essential ideas and results can be conveyed in a more intuitive manner without the mathematical machinery required for the most general cases. As an application the results are applied to the study of the covariance matrices and their factors of linear models of discrete time random processes.

2,231 citations

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07 Oct 2012TL;DR: Using the well-established theory of Circulant matrices, this work provides a link to Fourier analysis that opens up the possibility of extremely fast learning and detection with the Fast Fourier Transform, which can be done in the dual space of kernel machines as fast as with linear classifiers.

Abstract: Recent years have seen greater interest in the use of discriminative classifiers in tracking systems, owing to their success in object detection. They are trained online with samples collected during tracking. Unfortunately, the potentially large number of samples becomes a computational burden, which directly conflicts with real-time requirements. On the other hand, limiting the samples may sacrifice performance.
Interestingly, we observed that, as we add more and more samples, the problem acquires circulant structure. Using the well-established theory of Circulant matrices, we provide a link to Fourier analysis that opens up the possibility of extremely fast learning and detection with the Fast Fourier Transform. This can be done in the dual space of kernel machines as fast as with linear classifiers. We derive closed-form solutions for training and detection with several types of kernels, including the popular Gaussian and polynomial kernels. The resulting tracker achieves performance competitive with the state-of-the-art, can be implemented with only a few lines of code and runs at hundreds of frames-per-second. MATLAB code is provided in the paper (see Algorithm 1).

1,877 citations

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Abstract: Some mathematical topics, circulant matrices, in particular, are pure gems that cry out to be admired and studied with different techniques or perspectives in mind. Our work on this subject was originally motivated by the apparent need of one of the authors (IK) to derive a specific result, in the spirit of Proposition 24, to be applied in his investigation of theta constant identities [9]. Although progress on that front eliminated the need for such a theorem, the search for it continued and was stimulated by enlightening conversations with Yum-Tong Siu during a visit to Vietnam. Upon IK’s return to the US, a visit by Paul Fuhrmann brought to his attention a vast literature on the subject, including the monograph [4]. Conversations in the Stony Brook Mathematics’ common room attracted the attention of the other author, and that of Sorin Popescu and Daryl Geller∗ to the subject, and made it apparent that circulant matrices are worth studying in their own right, in part because of the rich literature on the subject connecting it to diverse parts of mathematics. These productive interchanges between the participants resulted in [5], the basis for this article. After that version of the paper lay dormant for a number of years, the authors’ interest was rekindled by the casual discovery by SRS that these matrices are connected with algebraic geometry over the mythical field of one element. Circulant matrices are prevalent in many parts of mathematics (see, for example, [8]). We point the reader to the elegant treatment given in [4, §5.2], and to the monograph [1] devoted to the subject. These matrices appear naturally in areas of mathematics where the roots of unity play a role, and some of the reasons for this to be so will unfurl in our presentation. However ubiquitous they are, many facts about these matrices can be proven using only basic linear algebra. This makes the area quite accessible to undergraduates looking for research problems, or mathematics teachers searching for topics of unique interest to present to their students. We concentrate on the discussion of necessary and sufficient conditions for circulant matrices to be non-singular, and on various distinct representations they have, goals that allow us to lay out the rich mathematical structure that surrounds them. Our treatement though is by no means exhaustive. We expand on their connection to the algebraic geometry over a field with one element, to normal curves, and to Toeplitz’s operators. The latter material illustrates the strong presence these matrices have in various parts of modern and classical mathematics. Additional connections to other mathematics may be found in [11]. The paper is organized as follows. In §2 we introduce the basic definitions, and present two models of the space of circulant matrices, including that as a

708 citations

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Abstract: This paper describes exact and explicit representations of the differential operators, ${{d^n } / {dx^n }}$, $n = 1,2, \cdots $, in orthonormal bases of compactly supported wavelets as well as the representations of the Hilbert transform and fractional derivatives. The method of computing these representations is directly applicable to multidimensional convolution operators.Also, sparse representations of shift operators in orthonormal bases of compactly supported wavelets are discussed and a fast algorithm requiring $O(N\log N)$ operations for computing the wavelet coefficients of all N circulant shifts of a vector of the length $N = 2^n $ is constructed. As an example of an application of this algorithm, it is shown that the storage requirements of the fast algorithm for applying the standard form of a pseudodifferential operator to a vector (see [G. Beylkin, R. R. Coifman, and V. Rokhlin, Comm. Pure. Appl. Math., 44 (1991), pp. 141–183]) may be reduced from $O(N)$ to $O(\log ^2 N)$ significant entries.

597 citations