About: Citric acid is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17745 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 277125 citation(s). The topic is also known as: citrate & H3cit.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Apr 1963-Journal of Cell Biology
TL;DR: The stain reported here differs from previous alkaline lead stains in that the chelating agent, citrate, is in sufficient excess to sequester all lead present, and is less likely to contaminate sections.
Abstract: Aqueous solutions of lead salts (1, 2) and saturated solutions of lead hydroxide (1) have been used as stains to enhance the electron-scattering properties of components of biological materials examined in the electron microscope. Saturated solutions of lead hydroxide (1), while staining more intensely than either lead acetate or monobasic lead acetate (l , 2), form insoluble lead carbonate upon exposure to air. The avoidance of such precipitates which contaminate surfaces of sections during staining has been the stimulus for the development of elaborate procedures for exclusion of air or carbon dioxide (3, 4). Several modifications of Watson's lead hydroxide stain (1) have recently appeared (5-7). All utilize relatively high pH (approximately 12) and one contains small amounts of tartrate (6), a relatively weak complexing agent (8), in addition to lead. These modified lead stains are less liable to contaminate the surface of the section with precipitated stain products. The stain reported here differs from previous alkaline lead stains in that the chelating agent, citrate, is in sufficient excess to sequester all lead present. Lead citrate, soluble in high concentrations in basic solutions, is a chelate compound with an apparent association constant (log Ka) between ligand and lead ion of 6.5 (9). Tissue binding sites, presumably organophosphates, and other anionic species present in biological components following fixation, dehydration, and plastic embedding apparently have a greater affinity for this cation than lead citrate inasmuch as cellular and extracellular structures in the section sequester lead from the staining solution. Alkaline lead citrate solutions are less likely to contaminate sections, as no precipitates form when droplets of fresh staining solution are exposed to air for periods of up to 30 minutes. The resultant staining of the sections is of high intensity in sections of Aralditeor Epon-embedded material. Cytoplasmic membranes, ribosomes, glycogen, and nuclear material are stained (Figs. 1 to 3). STAIN SOLUTION: Lead citrate is prepared by
01 Apr 1989-Plant Cell and Environment
TL;DR: The strong acidification of the rhizosphere and the cation/anion uptake ratio of the plants strongly suggests that proteoid roots of white lupin excrete citric acid, rather than citrate, into the Rhizosphere leading to intensive chemical extraction of a limited soil volume.
Abstract: . White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown for 13 weeks in a phosphorus (P) deficient calcareous soil (20% CaCO3, pH(H2O)7.5) which had been sterilized prior to planting and fertilized with nitrate as source of nitrogen. In response to P deficiency, proteoid roots developed which accounted for about 50% of the root dry weight. In the rhizosphere soil of the proteoid root zones, the pH dropped to 4.8 and abundant white precipitates became visible. X-ray spectroscopy and chemical analysis showed that these precipitates consisted of calcium citrate. The amount of citrate released as root exudate by 13-week-old plants was about 1 g plant−1, representing about 23% of the total plant dry weight at harvest. In the rhizosphere soil of the proteoid root zones the concentrations of available P decreased and of available Fe, Mn and Zn increased. The strong acidification of the rhizosphere and the cation/anion uptake ratio of the plants strongly suggests that proteoid roots of white lupin excrete citric acid, rather than citrate, into the rhizosphere leading to intensive chemical extraction of a limited soil volume. In a calcareous soil, citric acid excretion leads to dissolution of CaCO3 and precipitation of calcium citrate in the zone of proteoid roots.
TL;DR: By acting as ligands for GPCRs, succinate and α-ketoglutarate are found to have unexpected signalling functions beyond their traditional roles and it is shown that succinate increases blood pressure in animals.
Abstract: The citric acid cycle is central to the regulation of energy homeostasis and cell metabolism. Mutations in enzymes that catalyse steps in the citric acid cycle result in human diseases with various clinical presentations. The intermediates of the citric acid cycle are present at micromolar concentration in blood and are regulated by respiration, metabolism and renal reabsorption/extrusion. Here we show that GPR91 (ref. 3), a previously orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), functions as a receptor for the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate. We also report that GPR99 (ref. 4), a close relative of GPR91, responds to alpha-ketoglutarate, another intermediate in the citric acid cycle. Thus by acting as ligands for GPCRs, succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate are found to have unexpected signalling functions beyond their traditional roles. Furthermore, we show that succinate increases blood pressure in animals. The succinate-induced hypertensive effect involves the renin-angiotensin system and is abolished in GPR91-deficient mice. Our results indicate a possible role for GPR91 in renovascular hypertension, a disease closely linked to atherosclerosis, diabetes and renal failure.
TL;DR: The physiology and chemistry of citric and oxalic acid production in fungi are discussed, the intimate association of these acids and processes with metal speciation, physiology and mobility, and their importance and involvement in key fungal-mediated processes, including lignocellulose degradation, plant pathogenesis and metal biogeochemistry.
Abstract: The production of organic acids by fungi has profound implications for metal speciation, physiology and biogeochemical cycles. Biosynthesis of oxalic acid from glucose occurs by hydrolysis of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate catalysed by cytosolic oxaloacetase, whereas on citric acid, oxalate production occurs by means of glyoxylate oxidation. Citric acid is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with metals greatly influencing biosynthesis: growth limiting concentrations of Mn, Fe and Zn are important for high yields. The metal-complexing properties of these organic acids assist both essential metal and anionic (e.g. phosphate) nutrition of fungi, other microbes and plants, and determine metal speciation and mobility in the environment, including transfer between terrestrial and aquatic habitats, biocorrosion and weathering. Metal solubilization processes are also of potential for metal recovery and reclamation from contaminated solid wastes, soils and low-grade ores. Such ‘heterotrophic leaching’ can occur by several mechanisms but organic acids occupy a central position in the overall process, supplying both protons and a metal-complexing organic acid anion. Most simple metal oxalates [except those of alkali metals, Fe(III) and Al] are sparingly soluble and precipitate as crystalline or amorphous solids. Calcium oxalate is the most important manifestation of this in the environment and, in a variety of crystalline structures, is ubiquitously associated with free-living, plant symbiotic and pathogenic fungi. The main forms are the monohydrate (whewellite) and the dihydrate (weddelite) and their formation is of significance in biomineralization, since they affect nutritional heterogeneity in soil, especially Ca, P, K and Al cycling. The formation of insoluble toxic metal oxalates, e.g. of Cu, may confer tolerance and ensure survival in contaminated environments. In semiarid environments, calcium oxalate formation is important in the formation and alteration of terrestrial subsurface limestones. Oxalate also plays an important role in lignocellulose degradation and plant pathogenesis, affecting activities of key enzymes and metal oxidoreduction reactions, therefore underpinning one of the most fundamental roles of fungi in carbon cycling in the natural environment. This review discusses the physiology and chemistry of citric and oxalic acid production in fungi, the intimate association of these acids and processes with metal speciation, physiology and mobility, and their importance and involvement in key fungal-mediated processes, including lignocellulose degradation, plant pathogenesis and metal biogeochemistry.
01 Oct 1994-Plant and Soil
TL;DR: The role of organic acids in the mobilization of plant nutrients from the rhizosphere was assessed in seven contrasting soil types as mentioned in this paper, and it was concluded that organic acids can be expected to be of little consequence in nutrient mobilization from high pH soils, whilst in acid soils they may be involved both in a more general mechanism for micronutrient uptake or as a potential Al detoxification mechanism.
Abstract: The role of organic acids in the mobilization of plant nutrients from the rhizosphere was assessed in seven contrasting soil types. The results indicated that malate was poor at mobilizing micronutrients from all the test soils, whilst citrate was capable of mobilizing significant quantities. Citrate was also capable of mobilizing P from one soil which possessed a large Ca-P fraction. This mobilization of P was due to both the complexing action of the citrate anion and due to the dissolution properties of the protons released from citric acid upon equilibrium with the soil solution. The reaction of citrate with cations was found to be near instantaneous with significant absorption to the solid phase in some soils at low concentrations. Soil decomposition studies indicated that citrate was rapidly broken down in organic soils but was more resistant to degradation in subsoil horizons. It was concluded that organic acids can be expected to be of little consequence in nutrient mobilization from high pH soils, whilst in acid soils they may be involved both in a more general mechanism for micronutrient uptake or as a potential Al detoxification mechanism.
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