Topic

# Class (set theory)

About: Class (set theory) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 17478 publications have been published within this topic receiving 242099 citations.

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TL;DR: A context theory of classificatio n is described in which judgments are assumed to derive exclusively from stored exemplar information, and the main idea is that a probe item acts as a retrieval cue to access information associated with stimuli similar to the probe.

Abstract: Most theories dealing with ill-defined concepts assume that performance is based on category level information or a mixture of category level and specific item information. A context theory of classificatio n is described in which judgments are assumed to derive exclusively from stored exemplar information. The main idea is that a probe item acts as a retrieval cue to access information associated with stimuli similar to the probe. The predictions of the context theory are contrasted with those of a class of theories (including prototype theory) that assume that the information entering into judgments can be derived from an additive combination of information from component cue dimensions. Across four experiments using both geometric forms and schematic faces as stimuli, the context theory consistently gave a better account of the data. The relation of the context theory to other theories and phenomena associated with ill-defined concepts is discussed in detail. One of the major components of cognitive behavior concerns abstracting rules and forming concepts. Our entire system of naming objects and events, talking about them, and interacting with them presupposes the ability to group experiences into appropriate classes. Young children learn to tell the difference between dogs and cats, between clocks and fans, and between stars and street lights. Since few concepts are formally taught, the evolution of concepts from experience with exemplars must be a fundamental learning phenomenon. The focus of the present article is to explore how such conceptual achievements emerge from individual instances.

2,772 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new approach involving the elaboration of the threat concept is introduced involving a wider class of situations in which threats can play a role, and the autor extends his previous treatment of "The Bargaining Problem" to a wider set of situations where threats can be played a role.

Abstract: In this paper, the autor extends his previous treatment of «The Bargaining Problem» to a wider class of situations in which threats can play a role/ A new approach is introduced involving the elaboration of the threat concept.

2,739 citations

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TL;DR: A taxonomy of groups and groups' behavior can be found in this article, where the authors present a theory of pressure groups and their role in the formation and management of groups.

Abstract: Introduction I. A Theory of Groups and Organizations A. The purpose of organization B. Public goods and large groups C. The traditional theory of groups D. Small groups E. "Exclusive" and "inclusive" groups F. A taxonomy of groups II. Group Size and Group Behavior A. The coherence and effectiveness of small groups B. Problems of the traditional theories C. Social incentives and rational behavior III. The Labor Union and Economic Freedom A. Coercion in labor unions B. Labor-union growth in theory and practice C. The closed shop and economic freedom in the latent group D. Government intervention and economic freedom in the latent group IV. Orthodox Theories of State and Class A. The economists' theory of the state B. The Marxian theory of state and class C. The logic of the Marxian theory V. Orthodox Theories of Pressure Groups A. The philosophical view of pressure groups B. Institutional economics and the pressure group--John R. Commons C. Modern theories of pressure groups--Bentley, Truman, Latham D. The logic of group theory VI. The "By-Product" and "Special Interest" Theories A. The "by-product" theory of large pressure groups B. Labor lobbies C. Professional lobbies D. The "special interest" theory and business lobbies E. Government promotion of political pressure F. Farm cooperatives and farm lobbies G. Noneconomic lobbies H. The "forgotten groups"--those who suffer in silence Index

2,621 citations

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TL;DR: The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen as mentioned in this paper is a well-known theory of leisure classes and can be found at the Monthly Review website. Click here to purchase a PDF version of this article.

Abstract: Review of The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen. This article can also be found at the Monthly Review website , where most recent articles are published in full. Click here to purchase a PDF version of this article at the Monthly Review website.

2,173 citations

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TL;DR: A formulation of the simple theory oftypes which incorporates certain features of the calculus of λ-conversion into the theory of types and is offered as being of interest on this basis.

Abstract: The purpose of the present paper is to give a formulation of the simple theory of types which incorporates certain features of the calculus of λ-conversion. A complete incorporation of the calculus of λ-conversion into the theory of types is impossible if we require that λx and juxtaposition shall retain their respective meanings as an abstraction operator and as denoting the application of function to argument. But the present partial incorporation has certain advantages from the point of view of type theory and is offered as being of interest on this basis (whatever may be thought of the finally satisfactory character of the theory of types as a foundation for logic and mathematics).For features of the formulation which are not immediately connected with the incorporation of λ-conversion, we are heavily indebted to Whitehead and Russell, Hilbert and Ackermann, Hilbert and Bernays, and to forerunners of these, as the reader familiar with the works in question will recognize.The class of type symbols is described by the rules that i and o are each type symbols and that if α and β are type symbols then (αβ) is a type symbol: it is the least class of symbols which contains the symbols i and o and is closed under the operation of forming the symbol (αβ) from the symbols α and β.

1,984 citations