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Click chemistry

About: Click chemistry is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7360 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 278925 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Examination of nature's favorite molecules reveals a striking preference for making carbon-heteroatom bonds over carbon-carbon bonds-surely no surprise given that carbon dioxide is nature's starting material and that most reactions are performed in water. Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are condensation polymers of small subunits stitched together by carbon-heteroatom bonds. Even the 35 or so building blocks from which these crucial molecules are made each contain, at most, six contiguous C-C bonds, except for the three aromatic amino acids. Taking our cue from nature's approach, we address here the development of a set of powerful, highly reliable, and selective reactions for the rapid synthesis of useful new compounds and combinatorial libraries through heteroatom links (C-X-C), an approach we call "click chemistry". Click chemistry is at once defined, enabled, and constrained by a handful of nearly perfect "spring-loaded" reactions. The stringent criteria for a process to earn click chemistry status are described along with examples of the molecular frameworks that are easily made using this spartan, but powerful, synthetic strategy.

8,828 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In situ click chemistry is used to develop COX-2 specific inhibitors with high in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, significantly higher than that of widely used selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.
Abstract: Cyclooxygenase-2 isozyme is a promising anti-inflammatory drug target, and overexpression of this enzyme is also associated with several cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. The amino-acid sequence and structural similarity between inducible cyclooxygenase-2 and housekeeping cyclooxygenase-1 isoforms present a significant challenge to design selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Herein, we describe the use of the cyclooxygenase-2 active site as a reaction vessel for the in situ generation of its own highly specific inhibitors. Multi-component competitive-binding studies confirmed that the cyclooxygenase-2 isozyme can judiciously select most appropriate chemical building blocks from a pool of chemicals to build its own highly potent inhibitor. Herein, with the use of kinetic target-guided synthesis, also termed as in situ click chemistry, we describe the discovery of two highly potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 isozyme inhibitors. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of these two novel small molecules is significantly higher than that of widely used selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Traditional inflammation and pain relief drugs target both cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2), causing severe side effects. Here, the authors use in situ click chemistry to develop COX-2 specific inhibitors with high in vivo anti-inflammatory activity.

3,897 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The radical-mediated thiol-ene reaction has all the desirable features of a click reaction, being highly efficient, simple to execute with no side products and proceeding rapidly to high yield.
Abstract: Following Sharpless' visionary characterization of several idealized reactions as click reactions, the materials science and synthetic chemistry communities have pursued numerous routes toward the identification and implementation of these click reactions. Herein, we review the radical-mediated thiol-ene reaction as one such click reaction. This reaction has all the desirable features of a click reaction, being highly efficient, simple to execute with no side products and proceeding rapidly to high yield. Further, the thiol-ene reaction is most frequently photoinitiated, particularly for photopolymerizations resulting in highly uniform polymer networks, promoting unique capabilities related to spatial and temporal control of the click reaction. The reaction mechanism and its implementation in various synthetic methodologies, biofunctionalization, surface and polymer modification, and polymerization are all reviewed.

2,821 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The copper-(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole formation from azides and terminal acetylenes is a particularly powerful linking reaction, due to its high degree of dependability, complete specificity, and the bio-compatibility of the reactants.
Abstract: Click chemistry is a modular approach that uses only the most practical and reliable chemical transformations. Its applications are increasingly found in all aspects of drug discovery, ranging from lead finding through combinatorial chemistry and target-templated in situ chemistry, to proteomics and DNA research, using bioconjugation reactions. The copper-(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole formation from azides and terminal acetylenes is a particularly powerful linking reaction, due to its high degree of dependability, complete specificity, and the bio-compatibility of the reactants. The triazole products are more than just passive linkers; they readily associate with biological targets, through hydrogen bonding and dipole interactions.

2,722 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20228
2021364
2020454
2019469
2018400
2017446