About: Climbing is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4122 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 43284 citation(s).
TL;DR: It is concluded that perception for the control of action reflects the underlying dynamics of the animal-environment system.
Abstract: How do animals visually guide their activities in a cluttered environment? Gibson (1979) proposed that they perceive what environmental objects offer or afford for action. An analysis of affordances in terms of the dynamics of an animal-environment system is presented. Critical points, corresponding to phase transitions in behavior, and optimal points, corresponding to stable, preferred regions of minimum energy expenditure, emerge from variation in the animal-environment fit. It is hypothesized that these points are constants across physically similar systems and that they provide a natural basis for perceptual categories and preferences. In three experiments these hypotheses are examined for the activity of human stair climbing, by varying riser height with respect to leg length. The perceptual category boundary between "climbable" and "unclimbable" stairs is predicted by a biomechanical model, and visually preferred riser height is predicted from measurements of minimum energy expenditure during climbing. It is concluded that perception for the control of action reflects the underlying dynamics of the animal-environment system.
Abstract: Previous work has shown that both the perceived and actual critical (maximum) heights of surfaces that afford "sitting on " and "climbing on" can be expressed as constant proportions of each actor's leg length. The current study provides evidence that these judgments of critical action boundaries are based on an existing source of size and distance information that is already scaled with reference to the actor's eyeheight. In Experiment 1 changes in judgments of "perceived eyeheight" (an index of the intrinsic scalar) as a function of viewing distance were shown to be highly correlated with changes in the maximum height that was perceived to afford sitting on or climbing on. In Experiments 2 and 3 observers wore 10-cm blocks and made judgments about whether the heights of various surfaces afforded sitting or climbing. The use of eyeheight-scaled information as the basis for their estimates predicted the obtained pattern of errors in these judgments. With a modicum of experience wearing the blocks, however, observers were able to retune accurately their critical action boundary to a degree that would not have been predicted from their consistent overestimation of the height of the block on which they were standing. These results have implications for understanding how observers obtain information about their specific action boundary.
01 Jan 1992-
TL;DR: New pesticidal compositions which comprise an inert carrier and a pesticidal amount of a compound described above, and a method for their use are disclosed.
01 Apr 2008-Journal of Field Robotics
TL;DR: The design process is described and specifically addresses body morphology, hierarchical compliance in the legs and feet, and sensing and control systems that enable robust and reliable climbing on difficult surfaces that demonstrate the robot's ability to climb reliably for long distances.
Abstract: This paper presents an integrated, systems-level view of several novel design and control features associated with the biologically inspired, hexapedal, RiSE (Robots in Scansorial Environments) robot. RiSE is the first legged machine capable of locomotion on both the ground and a variety of vertical building surfaces including brick, stucco, and crushed stone at speeds up to 4 cm-s, quietly and without the use of suction, magnets, or adhesives. It achieves these capabilities through a combination of bioinspired and traditional design methods. This paper describes the design process and specifically addresses body morphology, hierarchical compliance in the legs and feet, and sensing and control systems that enable robust and reliable climbing on difficult surfaces. Experimental results illustrate the effects of various behaviors on climbing performance and demonstrate the robot's ability to climb reliably for long distances. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
01 Jan 1976-Folia Primatologica
TL;DR: Comparison of siamang locomotion and posture with that of other apes suggest that quadramanous climbing during feeding is the basic hominoid locomotor adaptation.
Abstract: Wild, adult siamang were observed for over 800 h in lowland dipterocarp forest in the Krau Game Reserve, Pahang, West Malaysia. Siamang use four patterns of locomotion: brachiation, climbing, bipedalism and leaping. The pattern of locomotion used by the siamang varies with the size of arboreal supports and with major behavioral activity. Travel is primarily by brachiation along large boughs. Locomotion during feeding is primarily climbing among small branches. In feeding, siamang use suspensory postures among small supports and seated postures on large supports. Comparison of siamang locomotion and posture with that of other apes suggest that quadramanous climbing during feeding is the basic hominoid locomotor adaptation.