About: Clostridium perfringens is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5929 publications have been published within this topic receiving 142875 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The most common mechanisms that help Gram-positive bacteria overcome the challenge posed by different acidic environments are described, i.e., the use of proton pumps, the protection or repair of macromolecules, cell membrane changes, production of alkali, induction of pathways by transcriptional regulators, alteration of metabolism, and the role of cell density and cell signaling.
Abstract: Gram-positive bacteria possess a myriad of acid resistance systems that can help them to overcome the challenge posed by different acidic environments. In this review the most common mechanisms are described: i.e., the use of proton pumps, the protection or repair of macromolecules, cell membrane changes, production of alkali, induction of pathways by transcriptional regulators, alteration of metabolism, and the role of cell density and cell signaling. We also discuss the reponses of Listeria monocytogenes, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, oral streptococci, and lactic acid bacteria to acidic environments and outline ways in which this knowledge has been or may be used to either aid or prevent bacterial survival in low-pH environments.
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-analyses of the prophylaxis and therapy practices followed by a discussion of these practices in relation to the case of C. perfringens.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION 216 CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS 216 Introduction 216 Major Toxins 216 Disease and Pathogenesis by Toxin Type 217 Type A 218 Type B 219 Type C 219 Type D 220 Type E 220 Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens 221 Reports of untyped C. perfringens 221 Prophylaxis and Therapy 222 Diagnosis 222 CLOSTRIDIUM SEPTICUM 223 Introduction 223 Virulence Attributes and Pathogenesis of Enteric Disease 223 Prophylaxis and Therapy 224 Diagnosis 224 CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE 224 CLOSTRIDIUM SPIROFORME 225 CLOSTRIDIUM COLINUM 226 REFERENCES 226
TL;DR: A method using scanning electron microscope to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.
Abstract: This study was conducted to identify and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of some Lactobacillus isolates of chicken origin. Among 90 isolates 14 Lactobacillus species were distinguished using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S-ARDRA. The dominant species was L. salivarius (34.4%), followed by L. johnsonii (23.3%), L. crispatus (13.3%) and L. reuteri (11.1%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity against wild-type strains of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens. Results from the agar slab method showed that all Lactobacillus isolates were able to produce active compounds on solid media with antagonistic properties against these pathogens. The highest sensitivity to lactobacilli was observed in C. perfringens strains, and the lowest in E. coli. Lactobacillus salivarius exhibited particularly strong antagonism towards all of the indicator bacteria. Strains of L. ingluviei and L. johnsonii and one strain of L. salivarius (10d) selectively inhibited the growth of C. perfringens. No antimicrobial activity of many Lactobacillus isolates was observed when cell-free culture supernatant was used in a well diffusion assay. All Lactobacillus isolates exhibited the ability to produce H2O2 and proved to be hydrophobic (excluding one of L. salivarius). [Int Microbiol 19(1):57-67 (2016)]Keywords: Lactobacillus spp. · avian lactobacilli · antimicrobial activity · gut health · poultry pathogens
TL;DR: Bacterial growth data showed that oligofructose and inulin exerted a preferential stimulatory effect on numbers of the health-promoting genus Bifidobacterium, whilst maintaining populations of potential pathogens (Escherichia coli, Clostridium) at relatively low levels.
Abstract: The in vitro fermentability of oligofructose and inulin was compared with a range of reference carbohydrates by measuring bacterial end-product formation in batch culture. Short chain fatty acid and gas formation indicated that these substrates, which occur naturally in the diet and reach the colon in a largely intact form, were utilized by mixed populations of gut bacteria. Bacterial growth data showed that oligofructose and inulin exerted a preferential stimulatory effect on numbers of the health-promoting genus Bifidobacterium, whilst maintaining populations of potential pathogens (Escherichia coli, Clostridium) at relatively low levels. Pure culture studies confirmed the enhanced ability of bifidobacteria to utilize these substrates in comparison with glucose. Batch culture experiments demonstrated that the growth of Bifidobacterium infantis had an inhibitory effect towards E. coli and Clostridium perfringens. Potentially, an increase in the concentration of these substrates in the diet may therefore improve the composition of the large intestinal microflora and have positive effects on the quality of the Western diet.
TL;DR: The genome analysis proved an efficient method for finding four members of the two-component VirR/VirS regulon that coordinately regulates the pathogenicity of C. perfringens, and a total of five hyaluronidase genes that will also contribute to virulence.
Abstract: Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes life-threatening gas gangrene and mild enterotoxaemia in humans, although it colonizes as normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. The organism is known to produce a variety of toxins and enzymes that are responsible for the severe myonecrotic lesions. Here we report the complete 3,031,430-bp sequence of C. perfringens strain 13 that comprises 2,660 protein coding regions and 10 rRNA genes, showing pronounced low overall G + C content (28.6%). The genome contains typical anaerobic fermentation enzymes leading to gas production but no enzymes for the tricarboxylic acid cycle or respiratory chain. Various saccharolytic enzymes were found, but many enzymes for amino acid biosynthesis were lacking in the genome. Twenty genes were newly identified as putative virulence factors of C. perfringens, and we found a total of five hyaluronidase genes that will also contribute to virulence. The genome analysis also proved an efficient method for finding four members of the two-component VirR/VirS regulon that coordinately regulates the pathogenicity of C. perfringens. Clearly, C. perfringens obtains various essential materials from the host by producing several degradative enzymes and toxins, resulting in massive destruction of the host tissues.
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