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About: CMOS is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 81371 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1189078 citations. The topic is also known as: complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor & complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the literature in the area of alternate gate dielectrics is given, based on reported results and fundamental considerations, the pseudobinary materials systems offer large flexibility and show the most promise toward success.
Abstract: Many materials systems are currently under consideration as potential replacements for SiO2 as the gate dielectric material for sub-0.1 μm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology. A systematic consideration of the required properties of gate dielectrics indicates that the key guidelines for selecting an alternative gate dielectric are (a) permittivity, band gap, and band alignment to silicon, (b) thermodynamic stability, (c) film morphology, (d) interface quality, (e) compatibility with the current or expected materials to be used in processing for CMOS devices, (f) process compatibility, and (g) reliability. Many dielectrics appear favorable in some of these areas, but very few materials are promising with respect to all of these guidelines. A review of current work and literature in the area of alternate gate dielectrics is given. Based on reported results and fundamental considerations, the pseudobinary materials systems offer large flexibility and show the most promise toward success...

5,711 citations

01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: The analysis and design techniques of CMOS integrated circuits that practicing engineers need to master to succeed can be found in this article, where the authors describe the thought process behind each circuit topology, but also consider the rationale behind each modification.
Abstract: The CMOS technology area has quickly grown, calling for a new text--and here it is, covering the analysis and design of CMOS integrated circuits that practicing engineers need to master to succeed. Filled with many examples and chapter-ending problems, the book not only describes the thought process behind each circuit topology, but also considers the rationale behind each modification. The analysis and design techniques focus on CMOS circuits but also apply to other IC technologies. Table of contents 1 Introduction to Analog Design 2 Basic MOS Device Physics 3 Single-Stage Amplifiers 4 Differential Amplifiers 5 Passive and Active Current Mirrors 6 Frequency Response of Amplifiers 7 Noise 8 Feedback 9 Operational Amplifiers 10 Stability and Frequency Compensation 11 Bandgap References 12 Introduction to Switched-Capacitor Circuits 13 Nonlinearity and Mismatch 14 Oscillators 15 Phase-Locked Loops 16 Short-Channel Effects and Device Models 17 CMOS Processing Technology 18 Layout and Packaging

4,826 citations

01 Jan 1977
TL;DR: In this article, the authors combine bipolar, CMOS and BiCMOS analog integrated circuits into a unified treatment that stresses their commonalities and highlights their differences, and provide valuable insights into the relative strengths and weaknesses of these important technologies.
Abstract: The Fifth Edition of this academically rigorous text provides a comprehensive treatment of analog integrated circuit analysis and design starting from the basics and through current industrial practices. The authors combine bipolar, CMOS and BiCMOS analog integrated-circuit design into a unified treatment that stresses their commonalities and highlights their differences. The comprehensive coverage of the material will provide the student with valuable insights into the relative strengths and weaknesses of these important technologies.

4,717 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: This expanded and thoroughly revised edition of Thomas H. Lee's acclaimed guide to the design of gigahertz RF integrated circuits features a completely new chapter on the principles of wireless systems.
Abstract: 53 ■ IEEE CIRCUITS & DEVICES MAGAZINE ■ NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2005 THE DESIGN OF CMOS RADIOFREQUENCY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, 2ND ED By Thomas Lee, Cambridge University Press, 2003. All-CMOS radio transceivers and system-on-a-chip are rapidly making inroads into a wireless market that, for years, was dominated by bipolar solutions. On wireless LAN and Bluethooth, RF CMOS is especially dominant, and it is becoming also in GSM cellular and GPS receivers. Hence, books that cover this widespread domain respond to a real need. The first edition of this book, published on 1998, was a pioneering textbook on the field of RF CMOS design. This second edition is a very interesting and upgraded version that includes new material and revised topics. In particular, it now includes a chapter on the fundamentals of wireless systems. The chapter on IC components is greatly expanded and now follows that on passive RLC components. The chapter on MOS devices has been updated since it includes the understanding of the model for the shorth-channel MOS and considers and discusses the scaling trends and its impact on the next several years. It has also expanded the topic of power amplifiers; indeed, it now also covers techniques for linearization and efficiency enhancement. Low-noise amplifiers, oscillators, and phase noise are now expanded and treated with more detail. Moreover, the chapter on transceiver architectures now includes much more detail, especially on direct-conversion architecture. Finally, additional commentary on practical details on simulations, floorplanning, and packaging has been added. The first edition of this book widely covered all the main arguments needed in the CMOS design context and provided a bridge between system and circuit issues. This second edition, which is upgraded and improved, is really useful, both in the industry and academia, for the new generation of RF engineers. Indeed, it is suited for students taking courses on RF design and is a valuable reference for practicing engineers. Of course, the arguments treated in the textbook lead up to low-frequency analog design IC topics. Hence, readers have to be intimately familiar with that subject. The book is divided into 20 chapters: 1) A Nonlinear History of Radio 2) Overview of Wireless Principles 3) Passive RLC Networks 4) Characteristics of Passive IC Components 5) A Review of MOS Device Physics; 6) Distributed Systems 7) The Smith Chart and S-Parameters 8) Bandwidth Estimation Techniques 9) High-Frequency Amplifier Design 10) Voltage References and Biasing 11) Noise 12) LNA Design 13) Mixers 14) Feedback Amplifiers 15) RF Power Amplifiers 16) Phase Locked Loop 17) Oscillators and Synthesizers 18) Phase Noise 19) Architectures 20) RF Circuits Through the Ages. Moreover, it contains over 100 circuit diagrams and many homework problems. Gaetano Palumbo

3,949 citations

01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a survey of the state-of-the-art in the field of digital integrated circuits, focusing on the following: 1. A Historical Perspective. 2. A CIRCUIT PERSPECTIVE.
Abstract: (NOTE: Each chapter begins with an Introduction and concludes with a Summary, To Probe Further, and Exercises and Design Problems.) I. THE FABRICS. 1. Introduction. A Historical Perspective. Issues in Digital Integrated Circuit Design. Quality Metrics of a Digital Design. 2. The Manufacturing Process. The CMOS Manufacturing Process. Design Rules-The Contract between Designer and Process Engineer. Packaging Integrated Circuits. Perspective-Trends in Process Technology. 3. The Devices. The Diode. The MOS(FET) Transistor. A Word on Process Variations. Perspective: Technology Scaling. 4. The Wire. A First Glance. Interconnect Parameters-Capitance, Resistance, and Inductance. Electrical Wire Models. SPICE Wire Models. Perspective: A Look into the Future. II. A CIRCUIT PERSPECTIVE. 5. The CMOS Inverter. The Static CMOS Inverter-An Intuitive Perspective. Evaluating the Robustness of the CMOS Inverter: The Static Behavior. Performance of CMOS Inverter: The Dynamic Behavior. Power, Energy, and Energy-Delay. Perspective: Technology Scaling and Its Impact on the Inverter Metrics. 6. Designing Combinational Logic Gates in CMOS. Static CMOS Design. Dynamic CMOS Design. How to Choose a Logic Style? Perspective: Gate Design in the Ultra Deep-Submicron Era. 7. Designing Sequential Logic Circuits. Timing Metrics for Sequential Circuits. Classification of Memory Elements. Static Latches and Registers. Dynamic Latches and Registers. Pulse Registers. Sense-Amplifier Based Registers. Pipelining: An Approach to Optimize Sequential Circuits. Non-Bistable Sequential Circuits. Perspective: Choosing a Clocking Strategy. III. A SYSTEM PERSPECTIVE. 8. Implementation Strategies for Digital ICS. From Custom to Semicustom and Structured-Array Design Approaches. Custom Circuit Design. Cell-Based Design Methodology. Array-Based Implementation Approaches. Perspective-The Implementation Platform of the Future. 9. Coping with Interconnect. Capacitive Parasitics. Resistive Parasitics. Inductive Parasitics. Advanced Interconnect Techniques. Perspective: Networks-on-a-Chip. 10. Timing Issues in Digital Circuits. Timing Classification of Digital Systems. Synchronous Design-An In-Depth Perspective. Self-Timed Circuit Design. Synchronizers and Arbiters. Clock Synthesis and Synchronization Using a Phased-Locked Loop. Future Directions and Perspectives. 11. Designing Arithmetic Building Blocks. Datapaths in Digital Processor Architectures. The Adder. The Multiplier. The Shifter. Other Arithmetic Operators. Power and Spped Trade-Offs in Datapath Structures. Perspective: Design as a Trade-off. 12. Designing Memory and Array Structures. The Memory Core. Memory Peripheral Circuitry. Memory Reliability and Yield. Power Dissipation in Memories. Case Studies in Memory Design. Perspective: Semiconductor Memory Trends and Evolutions. Problem Solutions. Index.

2,744 citations

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