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About: Coating is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 379844 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 3145488 citation(s). The topic is also known as: surface coating.

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01 Jan 1969
Abstract: Introduction. Basic theory. Antireflection coating. Neutral mirrors and beam splitters. Multilayer high-reflectance coatings. Edge filters. Band-pass filters. Tilted coatings. Production methods and thin-film materials. Factors affecting layer and coating properties. Layer uniformity and thickness monitoring. Specification of filters and environmental effects. System considerations: applications of filters and coatings. Other topics. Characteristics of thin-film dielectric materials.

3,268 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Polymer solar cells are reviewed in the context of the processing techniques leading to complete devices. A distinction is made between the film-forming techniques that are used currently such as spincoating, doctor blading and casting and the, from a processing point of view, more desirable film-forming techniques such as slot-die coating, gravure coating, knife-over-edge coating, off-set coating, spray coating and printing techniques such as ink jet printing, pad printing and screen printing. The former are used almost exclusively and are not suited for high-volume production whereas the latter are highly suited, but little explored in the context of polymer solar cells. A further distinction is made between printing and coating when a film is formed. The entire process leading to polymer solar cells is broken down into the individual steps and the available techniques and materials for each step are described with focus on the particular advantages and disadvantages associated with each case.

2,914 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper overviews the relatively new surface engineering discipline of plasma electrolysis, the main derivative of this being plasma electrolytic deposition (PED), which includes techniques such as plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and plasma electrolytic saturation (PES) processes such as plasma electrolytic nitriding/carburizing (PEN/PEC). In PED technology, spark or arc plasma micro-discharges in an aqueous solution are utilised to ionise gaseous media from the solution such that complex compounds are synthesised on the metal surface through the plasma chemical interactions. The physical and chemical fundamentals of plasma electrolysis are discussed here. The equipment and deposition procedures for coating production are described, and the effects of electrolyte composition and temperature on ignition voltage, discharge intensity and deposited layer thickness and composition are outlined. AC-pulse PEO treatment of aluminium in a suitable passivating electrolyte allows the formation of relatively thick (up to 500 μm) and hard (up to 23 GPa) surface layers with excellent adhesion to the substrate. A 10–20 μm thick surface compound layer (1200HV) and 200–300 μm inner diffusion layer with very good mechanical and corrosion-resistant properties can also be formed on steel substrates in only 3–5 min by use of the PEN/PEC saturation techniques. Details are given of the basic operational characteristics of the various techniques, and the physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics of coatings produced by plasma electrolytic treatments are presented.

2,347 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Magnesium and its alloys have excellent physical and mechanical properties for a number of applications. In particular its high strength:weight ratio makes it an ideal metal for automotive and aerospace applications, where weight reduction is of significant concern. Unfortunately, magnesium and its alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion, particularly in salt-spray conditions. This has limited its use in the automotive and aerospace industries, where exposure to harsh service conditions is unavoidable. The simplest way to avoid corrosion is to coat the magnesium-based substrate to prevent contact with the environment. This review details the state of the art in coating and surface modification technologies, applied to magnesium based substrates for improved corrosion and wear resistance. The topics covered include electrochemical plating, conversion coatings, anodizing, gas-phase deposition processes, laser surface alloying/cladding and organic coatings.

2,083 citations

14 Feb 1995
Abstract: Preface to the Second Edition. Preface to the First Edition. Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols. 1 Materials Used for Spraying. 1.1 Methods of Powders Production. 1.1.1 Atomization. 1.1.2 Sintering or Fusion. 1.1.3 Spray Drying (Agglomeration). 1.1.4 Cladding. 1.1.5 Mechanical Alloying (Mechanofusion). 1.1.6 Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS). 1.1.7 Other Methods. 1.2 Methods of Powders Characterization. 1.2.1 Grain Size. 1.2.2 Chemical and Phase Composition. 1.2.3 Internal and External Morphology. 1.2.4 High-temperature Behaviour. 1.2.5 Apparent Density and Flowability. 1.3 Feeding, Transport and Injection of Powders. 1.3.1 Powder Feeders. 1.3.2 Transport of Powders. 1.3.3 Injection of Powders. References. 2 Pre-Spray Treatment. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Surface Cleaning. 2.3 Substrate Shaping. 2.4 Surface Activation. 2.5 Masking. References. 3 Thermal Spraying Techniques. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Flame Spraying (FS). 3.2.1 History. 3.2.2 Principles. 3.2.3 Process Parameters. 3.2.4 Coating Properties. 3.3 Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS). 3.3.1 History. 3.3.2 Principles. 3.3.3 Process Parameters. 3.3.4 Coating Properties. 3.4 Arc Spraying (AS). 3.4.1 Principles. 3.4.2 Process Parameters. 3.4.3 Coating Properties. 3.5 Detonation-Gun Spraying (D-GUN). 3.5.1 History. 3.5.2 Principles. 3.5.3 Process Parameters. 3.5.4 Coating Properties. 3.6 High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) Spraying. 3.6.1 History. 3.6.2 Principles. 3.6.3 Process Parameters. 3.6.4 Coating Properties. 3.7 Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS). 3.7.1 History. 3.7.2 Principles. 3.7.3 Process Parameters. 3.7.4 Coating Properties. 3.8 Controlled-Atmosphere Plasma Spraying (CAPS). 3.8.1 History. 3.8.2 Principles. 3.8.3 Process Parameters. 3.8.4 Coating Properties. 3.9 Cold-Gas Spraying Method (CGSM). 3.9.1 History. 3.9.2 Principles. 3.9.3 Process Parameters. 3.9.4 Coating Properties. 3.10 New Developments in Thermal Spray Techniques. References. 4 Post-Spray Treatment. 4.1 Heat Treatment. 4.1.1 Electromagnetic Treatment. 4.1.2 Furnace Treatment. 4.1.3 Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). 4.1.4 Combustion Flame Re-melting. 4.2 Impregnation. 4.2.1 Inorganic Sealants. 4.2.2 Organic Sealants. 4.3 Finishing. 4.3.1 Grinding. 4.3.2 Polishing and Lapping. References. 5 Physics and Chemistry of Thermal Spraying. 5.1 Jets and Flames. 5.1.1 Properties of Jets and Flames. 5.2 Momentum Transfer between Jets or Flames and Sprayed Particles. 5.2.1 Theoretical Description. 5.2.2 Experimental Determination of Sprayed Particles' Velocities. 5.2.3 Examples of Experimental Determination of Particles Velocities. 5.3 Heat Transfer between Jets or Flames and Sprayed Particles. 5.3.1 Theoretical Description. 5.3.2 Methods of Particles' Temperature Measurements. 5.4 Chemical Modification at Flight of Sprayed Particles. References. 6 Coating Build-Up. 6.1 Impact of Particles. 6.1.1 Particle Deformation. 6.1.2 Particle Temperature at Impact. 6.1.3 Nucleation, Solidification and Crystal Growth. 6.1.4 Mechanisms of Adhesion. 6.2 Coating Growth. 6.2.1 Mechanism of Coating Growth. 6.2.2 Temperature of Coatings at Spraying. 6.2.3 Generation of Thermal Stresses at Spraying. 6.2.4 Coatings Surfaces. 6.3 Microstructure of the Coatings. 6.3.1 Crystal Phase Composition. 6.3.2 Coatings' Inhomogeneity. 6.3.3 Final Microstructure of Sprayed Coatings. 6.4 Thermally Sprayed Composites. 6.4.1 Classification of Sprayed Composites. 6.4.2 Composite Coating Manufacturing. References. 7 Methods of Coatings' Characterization. 7.1 Methods of Microstructure Characterization. 7.1.1 Methods of Chemical Analysis. 7.1.2 Crystallographic Analyses. 7.1.3 Microstructure Analyses. 7.1.4 Other Applied Methods. 7.2 Mechanical Properties of Coatings. 7.2.1 Adhesion Determination. 7.2.2 Hardness and Microhardness. 7.2.3 Elastic Moduli, Strength and Ductility. 7.2.4 Properties Related to Mechanics of Coating Fracture. 7.2.5 Friction and Wear. 7.2.6 Residual Stresses. 7.3 Physical Properties of Coatings. 7.3.1 Thickness, Porosity and Density. 7.3.2 Thermophysical Properties. 7.3.3 Thermal Shock Resistance. 7.4 Electrical Properties of Coatings. 7.4.1 Electrical Conductivity. 7.4.2 Properties of Dielectrics. 7.4.3 Electron Emission from Surfaces. 7.5 Magnetic Properties of Coatings. 7.6 Chemical Properties of Coatings. 7.6.1 Aqueous Corrosion. 7.6.2 Hot-gas Corrosion. 7.7 Characterization of Coatings' Quality. 7.7.1 Acoustical Methods. 7.7.2 Thermal Methods. References. 8 Properties of Coatings. 8.1 Design of Experiments. 8.2 Mechanical Properties. 8.2.1 Hardness and Microhardness. 8.2.2 Tensile Adhesion Strength. 8.2.3 Elastic Moduli, Strengths and Fracture Toughness. 8.2.4 Friction and Wear. 8.3 Thermophysical Properties. 8.3.1 Thermal Conductivity and Diffusivity. 8.3.2 Specific Heat. 8.3.3 Thermal Expansion. 8.3.4 Emissivity. 8.3.5 Thermal Shock Resistance. 8.4 Electric Properties. 8.4.1 Properties of Conductors. 8.4.2 Properties of Resistors. 8.4.3 Properties of Dielectrics. 8.4.4 Electric Field Emitters. 8.4.5 Properties of Superconductors. 8.5 Magnetic Properties. 8.5.1 Soft Magnets. 8.5.2 Hard Magnets. 8.6 Optical Properties. 8.6.1 Decorative Coatings. 8.6.2 Optically Functional Coatings. 8.7 Corrosion Resistance. 8.7.1 Aqueous Corrosion. 8.7.2 Hot-medium Corrosion. References. 9 Applications of Coatings. 9.1 Aeronautical and Space Industries. 9.1.1 Aero-engines. 9.1.2 Landing-gear Components. 9.1.3 Rocket Thrust-chamber Liners. 9.2 Agroalimentary Industry. 9.3 Automobile Industry. 9.4 Ceramics Industry. 9.4.1 Free-standing Samples. 9.4.2 Brick-Clay Extruders. 9.4.3 Crucibles to Melt Oxide Ceramics. 9.4.4 Ceramic Membranes. 9.5 Chemical Industry. 9.5.1 Photocatalytic Surfaces. 9.5.2 Tools in Petrol Search Installations. 9.5.3 Vessels in Chemical Refineries. 9.5.4 Gas-well Tubing. 9.5.5 Polymeric Coatings on Pipeline Components. 9.5.6 Ozonizer Tubes. 9.6 Civil Engineering. 9.7 Decorative Coatings. 9.8 Electronics Industry. 9.8.1 Heaters. 9.8.2 Sources for Sputtering. 9.8.3 Substrates for Hybrid Microelectronics. 9.8.4 Capacitor Electrodes. 9.8.5 Conductor Paths for Hybrid Electronics. 9.8.6 Microwave Integrated Circuits. 9.9 Energy Generation and Transport. 9.9.1 Solid-oxide Fuel Cell (SOFCs). 9.9.2 Thermopile Devices for Thermoelectric Generators. 9.9.3 Boilers in Power-generation Plants. 9.9.4 Stationary Gas Turbines. 9.9.5 Hydropower Stations. 9.9.6 MHD Generators. 9.10 Iron and Steel Industries. 9.10.1 Continuous Annealing Line (CAL). 9.10.2 Continuous Galvanizing Section. 9.10.3 Stave Cooling Pipes. 9.11 Machine Building Industry. 9.12 Medicine. 9.13 Mining Industry. 9.14 Non-ferrous Metal Industry. 9.14.1 Hot-extrusion Dies. 9.14.2 Protective Coatings against Liquid Copper. 9.14.3 Protective Coatings against Liquid Zirconium. 9.15 Nuclear Industry. 9.15.1 Components of Tokamak Device. 9.15.2 Magnetic-fusion Energy Device. 9.16 Paper Industry. 9.16.1 Dryers. 9.16.2 Gloss Calender Rolls. 9.16.3 Tubing in Boilers. 9.17 Printing and Packaging Industries. 9.17.1 Corona Rolls. 9.17.2 Anilox Rolls. 9.18 Shipbuiding and Naval Industries. 9.18.1 Marine Gas-turbine Engines. 9.18.2 Steam Valve Stems. 9.18.3 Non-skid Helicopter Flight Deck. References. Index.

1,595 citations

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