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Code-excited linear prediction

About: Code-excited linear prediction is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2025 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 28633 citation(s). The topic is also known as: CELP.


Papers
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Apr 1985
TL;DR: A code-excited linear predictive coder in which the optimum innovation sequence is selected from a code book of stored sequences to optimize a given fidelity criterion, indicating that a random code book has a slight speech quality advantage at low bit rates.
Abstract: We describe in this paper a code-excited linear predictive coder in which the optimum innovation sequence is selected from a code book of stored sequences to optimize a given fidelity criterion. Each sample of the innovation sequence is filtered sequentially through two time-varying linear recursive filters, one with a long-delay (related to pitch period) predictor in the feedback loop and the other with a short-delay predictor (related to spectral envelope) in the feedback loop. We code speech, sampled at 8 kHz, in blocks of 5-msec duration. Each block consisting of 40 samples is produced from one of 1024 possible innovation sequences. The bit rate for the innovation sequence is thus 1/4 bit per sample. We compare in this paper several different random and deterministic code books for their effectiveness in providing the optimum innovation sequence in each block. Our results indicate that a random code book has a slight speech quality advantage at low bit rates. Examples of speech produced by the above method will be played at the conference.

1,323 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Kuldip K. Paliwal1, B. Atal1
TL;DR: It is shown that the split vector quantizer can quantize LPC information in 24 bits/frame with an average spectral distortion of 1 dB and less than 2% of the frames having spectral distortion greater than 2 dB.
Abstract: For low bit rate speech coding applications, it is important to quantize the LPC parameters accurately using as few bits as possible. Though vector quantizers are more efficient than scalar quantizers, their use for accurate quantization of linear predictive coding (LPC) information (using 24-26 bits/frame) is impeded by their prohibitively high complexity. A split vector quantization approach is used here to overcome the complexity problem. An LPC vector consisting of 10 line spectral frequencies (LSFs) is divided into two parts, and each part is quantized separately using vector quantization. Using the localized spectral sensitivity property of the LSF parameters, a weighted LSF distance measure is proposed. With this distance measure, it is shown that the split vector quantizer can quantize LPC information in 24 bits/frame with an average spectral distortion of 1 dB and less than 2% of the frames having spectral distortion greater than 2 dB. The effect of channel errors on the performance of this quantizer is also investigated and results are reported. >

660 citations

Book
01 Feb 1995
TL;DR: A detailed account of the most recently developed digital speech coders designed specifically for use in the evolving communications systems, including an in-depth examination of the important topic of code excited linear prediction (CELP).
Abstract: From the Publisher: A detailed account of the most recently developed digital speech coders designed specifically for use in the evolving communications systems. Discusses the variety of speech coders utilized with such new systems as MBE IMMARSAT-M. Includes an in-depth examination of the important topic of code excited linear prediction (CELP).

447 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Bishnu S. Atal1
14 Apr 1983
TL;DR: The aim is to determine the extent to which the bit rate of LPC parameters can be reduced without sacrificing speech quality.
Abstract: This paper describes a method for efficient coding of LPC log area parameters. It is now well recognized that sample-by-sample quantization of LPC parameters is not very efficient in minimizing the bit rate needed to code these parameters. Recent methods for reducing the bit rate have used vector and segment quantization methods. Much of the past work in this area has focussed on efficient coding of LPC parameters in the context of vocoders which put a ceiling on achievable speech quality. The results from these studies cannot be directly applied to synthesis of high quality speech. This paper describes a different approach to efficient coding of log area parameters. Our aim is to determine the extent to which the bit rate of LPC parameters can be reduced without sacrificing speech quality. Speech events occur generally at non-uniformly spaced time intervals. Moreover, some speech events are slow while others are fast. Uniform sampling of speech parameters is thus not efficient. We describe a non-uniform sampling and interpolation procedure for efficient coding of log area parameters. A temporal decomposition technique is used to represent the continuous variation of these parameters as a linearly-weighted sum of a number of discrete elementary components. The location and length of each component is automatically adapted to speech events. We find that each elementary component can be coded as a very low information rate signal.

376 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new mixed excitation LPC vocoder model is presented that preserves the low bit rate of a fully parametric model but adds more free parameters to the excitation signal so that the synthesizer can mimic more characteristics of natural human speech.
Abstract: Traditional pitch-excited linear predictive coding (LPC) vocoders use a fully parametric model to efficiently encode the important information in human speech. These vocoders can produce intelligible speech at low data rates (800-2400 b/s), but they often sound synthetic and generate annoying artifacts such as buzzes, thumps, and tonal noises. These problems increase dramatically if acoustic background noise is present at the speech input. This paper presents a new mixed excitation LPC vocoder model that preserves the low bit rate of a fully parametric model but adds more free parameters to the excitation signal so that the synthesizer can mimic more characteristics of natural human speech. The new model also eliminates the traditional requirement for a binary voicing decision so that the vocoder performs well even in the presence of acoustic background noise. A 2400-b/s LPC vocoder based on this model has been developed and implemented in simulations and in a real-time system. Formal subjective testing of this coder confirms that it produces natural sounding speech even in a difficult noise environment. In fact, diagnostic acceptability measure (DAM) test scores show that the performance of the 2400-b/s mixed excitation LPC vocoder is close to that of the government standard 4800-b/s CELP coder. >

336 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20213
20207
201915
201810
201713
201623