About: Cohort is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 58451 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 2028917 citation(s).
TL;DR: This study provides a potential standardized definition for frailty in community-dwelling older adults and offers concurrent and predictive validity for the definition, and finds that there is an intermediate stage identifying those at high risk of frailty.
Abstract: Background: Frailty is considered highly prevalent in old age and to confer high risk for falls, disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Frailty has been considered synonymous with disability, comorbidity, and other characteristics, but it is recognized that it may have a biologic basis and be a distinct clinical syndrome. A standardized definition has not yet been established. Methods: To develop and operationalize a phenotype of frailty in older adults and assess concurrent and predictive validity, the study used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants were 5,317 men and women 65 years and older (4,735 from an original cohort recruited in 1989-90 and 582 from an African American cohort recruited in 1992-93). Both cohorts received almost identical baseline evaluations and 7 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively, with annual examinations and surveillance for outcomes including incident disease, hospitalization, falls, disability, and mortality. Results: Frailty was defined as a clinical syndrome in which three or more of the following criteria were present: unintentional weight loss (10 lbs in past year), self-reported exhaustion, weakness (grip strength), slow walking speed, and low physical activity. The overall prevalence of frailty in this community-dwelling population was 6.9%; it increased with age and was greater in women than men. Four-year incidence was 7.2%. Frailty was associated with being African American, having lower education and income, poorer health, and having higher rates of comorbid chronic diseases and disability. There was overlap, but not concordance, in the cooccurrence of frailty, comorbidity, and disability. This frailty phenotype was independently predictive (over 3 years) of incident falls, worsening mobility or ADL disability, hospitalization, and death, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.82 to 4.46, unadjusted, and 1.29-2.24, adjusted for a number of health, disease, and social characteristics predictive of 5-year mortality. Intermediate frailty status, as indicated by the presence of one or two criteria, showed intermediate risk of these outcomes as well as increased risk of becoming frail over 3-4 years of follow-up (odds ratios for incident frailty = 4.51 unadjusted and 2.63 adjusted for covariates, compared to those with no frailty criteria at baseline). Conclusions: This study provides a potential standardized definition for frailty in community-dwelling older adults and offers concurrent and predictive validity for the definition. It also finds that there is an intermediate stage identifying those at high risk of frailty. Finally, it provides evidence that frailty is not synonymous with either comorbidity or disability, but comorbidity is an etiologic risk factor for, and disability is an outcome of, frailty. This provides a potential basis for clinical assessment for those who are frail or at risk, and for future research to develop interventions for frailty based on a standardized ascertainment of frailty.
01 Nov 1994-Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
TL;DR: The estimated relative risk of death from an increase of one in the comorbidity score proved approximately equal to that from an additional decade of age.
Abstract: The basic objective of this paper is to evaluate an age-comorbidity index in a cohort of patients who were originally enrolled in a prospective study to identify risk factors for peri-operative complications. Two-hundred and twenty-six patients were enrolled in the study. The participants were patients with hypertension or diabetes who underwent elective surgery between 1982 and 1985 and who survived to discharge. Two-hundred and eighteen patients survived until discharge. These patients were followed for at least five years post-operatively. The estimated relative risk of death for each comorbidity rank was 1.4 and for each decade of age was 1.4. When age and comorbidity were modelled as a combined age-comorbidity score, the estimated relative risk for each combined age-comorbidity unit was 1.45. Thus, the estimated relative risk of death from an increase of one in the comorbidity score proved approximately equal to that from an additional decade of age. The combined age-comorbidity score may be useful in some longitudinal studies to estimate relative risk of death from prognostic clinical covariates.
04 Mar 2004-The New England Journal of Medicine
TL;DR: The BODE index, a simple multidimensional grading system, is better than the FEV1 at predicting the risk of death from any cause and from respiratory causes among patients with COPD.
Abstract: background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an incompletely reversible limitation in airflow. A physiological variable — the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) — is often used to grade the severity of COPD. However, patients with COPD have systemic manifestations that are not reflected by the FEV 1 . We hypothesized that a multidimensional grading system that assessed the respiratory and systemic expressions of COPD would better categorize and predict outcome in these patients. methods We first evaluated 207 patients and found that four factors predicted the risk of death in this cohort: the body-mass index (B), the degree of airflow obstruction (O) and dyspnea (D), and exercise capacity (E), measured by the six-minute–walk test. We used these variables to construct the BODE index, a multidimensional 10-point scale in which higher scores indicate a higher risk of death. We then prospectively validated the index in a cohort of 625 patients, with death from any cause and from respiratory causes as the outcome variables. results There were 25 deaths among the first 207 patients and 162 deaths (26 percent) in the validation cohort. Sixty-one percent of the deaths in the validation cohort were due to respiratory insufficiency, 14 percent to myocardial infarction, 12 percent to lung cancer, and 13 percent to other causes. Patients with higher BODE scores were at higher risk for death; the hazard ratio for death from any cause per one-point increase in the BODE score was 1.34 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.42; P<0.001), and the hazard ratio for death from respiratory causes was 1.62 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.48 to 1.77; P<0.001). The C statistic for the ability of the BODE index to predict the risk of death was larger than that for the FEV 1 (0.74 vs. 0.65).
01 Nov 2010-Chest
TL;DR: This simple, novel bleeding risk score (HAS-BLED) provides a practical tool to assess the individual bleeding risk of real-world patients withAF, potentially supporting clinical decision making regarding antithrombotic therapy in patients with AF.
Abstract: Objective Despite extensive use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and the increased bleeding risk associated with such OAC use, no handy quantification tool for assessing this risk exists. We aimed to develop a practical risk score to estimate the 1-year risk for major bleeding (intracranial, hospitalization, hemoglobin decrease >2 g/L, and/or transfusion) in a cohort of real-world patients with AF. Methods Based on 3,978 patients in the Euro Heart Survey on AF with complete follow-up, all univariate bleeding risk factors in this cohort were used in a multivariate analysis along with historical bleeding risk factors. A new bleeding risk score termed HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly (>65 years), Drugs/alcohol concomitantly) was calculated, incorporating risk factors from the derivation cohort. Results Fifty-three (1.5%) major bleeds occurred during 1-year follow-up. The annual bleeding rate increased with increasing risk factors. The predictive accuracy in the overall population using significant risk factors in the derivation cohort (C statistic 0.72) was consistent when applied in several subgroups. Application of the new bleeding risk score (HAS-BLED) gave similar C statistics except where patients were receiving antiplatelet agents alone or no antithrombotic therapy, with C statistics of 0.91 and 0.85, respectively. Conclusion This simple, novel bleeding risk score (HAS-BLED) provides a practical tool to assess the individual bleeding risk of real-world patients with AF, potentially supporting clinical decision making regarding antithrombotic therapy in patients with AF.
01 May 1995-Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
TL;DR: In conclusion, intensive glycemic control by multiple insulin injection therapy can delay the onset and the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy in Japanese patients with NIDDM.
Abstract: To examine whether intensive glycemic control could decrease the frequency or severity of diabetic microvascular complications, we performed a prospective study of Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) treated with multiple insulin injection treatment. A total of 110 patients with NIDDM was randomly assigned to multiple insulin injection treatment group (MIT group) or to conventional insulin injection treatment group (CIT group). Fifty-five NIDDM patients who showed no retinopathy and urinary albumin excretions < 30 mg/24 h at the baseline were evaluated in the primary-prevention cohort, and the other 55 NIDDM patients who showed simple retinopathy and urinary albumin excretions < 300 mg/24 h were evaluated in the secondary-intervention cohort. The appearance and the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy were evaluated every 6 months over a 6-year period. The worsening of complications in this study was defined as an increase of 2 or more steps in the 19 stages of the modified ETDRS interim scale for retinopathy and an increase of one or more steps in 3 stages (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and albuminuria) for nephropathy. The cumulative percentages of the development and the progression in retinopathy after 6 years were 7.7% for the MIT group and 32.0% for the CIT group in the primary-prevention cohort (P = 0.039), and 19.2% for MIT group and 44.0% for CIT group in the secondary-intervention cohort (P = 0.049). The cumulative percentages of the development and the progression in nephropathy after 6 years were 7.7% for the MIT group and 28.0% for the CIT group in the primary-prevention cohort (P = 0.032), and 11.5% and 32.0%, respectively, for the MIT and CIT groups in the secondary-intervention cohort (P = 0.044). In neurological tests after 6 years, MIT group showed significant improvement in the nerve conduction velocities, while the CIT group showed significant deterioration in the median nerve conduction velocities and vibration threshold. Although both postural hypotension and the coefficient of variation of R-R interval tended to improve in the MIT group, they deteriorated in the CIT group. In conclusion, intensive glycemic control by multiple insulin injection therapy can delay the onset and the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy in Japanese patients with NIDDM. From this study, the glycemic threshold to prevent the onset and the progression of diabetic microangiopathy is indicated as follows; HbA1c < 6.5%, FBG < 110 mg/dl, and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose concentration < 180 mg/dl.