About: Coleus is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 988 publications have been published within this topic receiving 12458 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The plant senescing reflectance index in the form (R 678 - R 500 )/R 750 was found to be sensitive to the Car/Chl ratio, and was used as a quantitative measure of leaf senescence and fruit ripening.
Abstract: Reflectance spectra in the visible and near infra-red range of the spectrum, acquired for maple (Acer platanoides L.), chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.), leaves and lemon (Citrus limon L.) and apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruits were studied. An increase of reflectance between 550 and 740 nm accompanied senescence-induced degradation of chlorophyll (Chl), whereas in the range 400-500 nm it remained low, due to retention of carotenoids (Car). It was found that both leaf senescence and fruit ripening affect the difference between reflectance (R) near 670 and 500 nm (R 678 -R 500 ), depending on pigment composition. The plant senescing reflectance index in the form (R 678 - R 500 )/R 750 was found to be sensitive to the Car/Chl ratio, and was used as a quantitative measure of leaf senescence and fruit ripening. The changes in the index were followed during leaf senescence, and natural and ethylene-induced fruit ripening. This novel index can be used for estimating the onset, the stage, relative rates and kinetics of senescence/ripening processes.
TL;DR: The aim of this review is to gather together all ethnobotanical information on Plectranthus and to map the data onto the most up-to-date phylogenetic classification in order to see if there are similar uses among related species and hence provide a framework for the prediction and exploration of new uses of species.
Abstract: Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. The genus is plagued with numerous nomenclatural disharmonies that make it difficult to collate accurate data on the uses. The aim of this review is to gather together all ethnobotanical information on Plectranthus and to map the data onto the most up-to-date phylogenetic classification in order to see if there are similar uses among related species and hence provide a framework for the prediction and exploration of new uses of species. The uses of 62 species of Plectranthus were mapped onto a current phylogeny based on DNA sequence data. The phylogeny reveals two major Clades, 1 and 2. The members of Clade 1 (corresponding to the formally recognized genus Coleus) were richer in number and diversity of uses than members of Clade 2 (comprising the remaining species of Plectranthus). The high incidence of synonymy can lead to problems in uncovering a species' ethnobotanical profile. About 30% of all citations of Plectranthus use a synonym and most of the synonyms are attributed to 10 of the most used species, 9 of which are in Clade 1. Members of the 'Coleus' Clade are the most studied group both taxonomically and economically. The higher incidence of study may be as a result of the higher diversity of uses and the fact that species in Clade 1, such as Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus mollis, are geographically more widespread than those in Clade 2. Plectranthus species in Clade 1 are frequently used as medicines and are used to treat a range of ailments, particularly digestive, skin, infective and respiratory problems. Plectranthus used as foods, flavours, fodder and materials are also mostly found in Clade 1. Monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and phenolics have been reported in species of Plectranthus. The abietane diterpenoids are the most diverse of the diterpenoids isolated from species of Plectranthus. The labdane diterpenoid, forskolin, occurs in Plectranthus barbatus and could explain some of the traditional uses of this species. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about the chemistry of other species of Plectranthus to explain their traditional uses.
TL;DR: This study has demonstrated the presence of two different cytoplasmic components which appear to be associated with the rapidly developing secondary wall: microtubular structures aligned in the cy toplasm adjacent to the secondary wall; and clusters of fibrillar elements within cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Abstract: Much attention is currently being devoted to the nature of the mechanisms in the cytoplasm which control and orient the deposition of polysaccharide microfibrils on the inner surface of the plant cell wall (1-4). We have approached the question of cytoplasmic participation in wall deposition by studying the fine structure of cells undergoing rapid secondary wall formation. Our study has demonstrated the presence of two different cytoplasmic components which appear to be associated with the rapidly developing secondary wall: (1) microtubular structures aligned in the cytoplasm adjacent to the secondary wall; and (2) clusters of fibrillar elements within cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. We believe these two components are different from one another, and, in order to distinguish clearly between them, will hereafter refer to them as \"tubules\" and \"fibrils,\" respectively. The plant material used in the investigation consisted of stem segments of Coleus blumei Benth. which had been excised, wounded, cultured on agar, and supplied with indoleacetic acid at the apical end (5, 6). Parenchyma cells interior to a vascular bundle severed by the wounding were induced by this treatment to redifl~rentiate into tracheary elements, and, in the process, to lay down numerous bands or reticulations of secondary wall. These redifferentiating cells were used in the investigation of fine structure. They were excised after 4 days of culture, fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide (7), stained in a solution of uranyl acetate (8), and embedded in an Epon-Araldite resin mixture. Sections were cut with a diamond knife and mounted on bare 400-mesh grids. In some cases sections were poststained with lead hydroxide (9). Secondary wall deposition in the redifferentiat ing cells is preceded by the appearance of thick bands of cytoplasm in the thin peripheral cytoplasmic layer of the large, vacuolate cells (10). These cytoplasmic bands are rich in elements of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, vesicles, and mitochondria (6). Deposition of secondary wall material results within 4 to 5 days in the appearance of scalariform, anastomosing bands consisting of massive depositions of cellulose, lignin, and other wall components. The tubules were localized beneath the plasmalemma in the cytoplasm next to the developing bands of secondary wall (Fig. I). In sections normal to the wall bands, the tubules were observed in cross-section arranged around the bands (Fig. 1, inset). Similar structures were not positively identified adjacent to the primary wall, an observation which may be related to the fact that the primary wall was no longer growing. Tubules associated with a particular wall band ran parallel to its surface and were usually aligned roughly parallel to one another in the direction taken by the band. They were sectioned longitudinally and could be traced for some distance through the cytoplasm when the region of transition between wall and cytoplasm lay within the plane of section (Figs. 1 and 5). The tubules were generally straight, although some exhibited a slight curvature or small angular changes in direction. They measured from 220 to 280 A in diameter, and consisted of a dense wall 55 to 70 A thick and a light interior 110 to 140 A in diameter. Their lengths were indeterminate, although some of the tubules were traced through the cytoplasm for at least 2 g. They were not observed in material fixed in permanganate. The nature and function of the tubules are unknown. Microtubular structures have been widely reported in animals and among the protista (reviewed by Slautterback, 11), and have been demonstrated by Manton in the spermatozoids of a moss (12) and of a fern (13). Quite recently, cytoplasmic tubules resembling those reported here have been found in higher plants by Ledbetter and Porter (14) in close association with the growing primary walls of root tips. An association of similar structures with the secondary wall has not been previously reported, so far as we are aware. We conjecture that the tubules may be concerned in some way with the development of the wall, e.g., by determining the place of deposition and the orientation of the
TL;DR: A similar degree of photoinhibition occurred under excess visible light in the red versus green varieties; whereas, the red leaf varieties were less damaged by UV-B and UV-C radiation suggesting protection by anthocyanin in their epidermal tissue.
Abstract: The maximum quantum yield for photosynthetic O2 evolution in red leaf coleus varieties having anthocyanin in their upper epidermis is much lower in green light and slightly lower in white light than in a green leaf variety lacking anthocyanin. A similar degree of photoinhibition occurred under excess visible light in the red versus green varieties; whereas, the red leaf varieties were less damaged by UV-B and UV-C radiation suggesting protection by anthocyanin in their epidermal tissue.