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Colloidal gold

About: Colloidal gold is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 25158 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 904430 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Although gold is the subject of one of the most ancient themes of investigation in science, its renaissance now leads to an exponentially increasing number of publications, especially in the context of emerging nanoscience and nanotechnology with nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). We will limit the present review to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), also called gold colloids. AuNPs are the most stable metal nanoparticles, and they present fascinating aspects such as their assembly of multiple types involving materials science, the behavior of the individual particles, size-related electronic, magnetic and optical properties (quantum size effect), and their applications to catalysis and biology. Their promises are in these fields as well as in the bottom-up approach of nanotechnology, and they will be key materials and building block in the 21st century. Whereas the extraction of gold started in the 5th millennium B.C. near Varna (Bulgaria) and reached 10 tons per year in Egypt around 1200-1300 B.C. when the marvelous statue of Touthankamon was constructed, it is probable that “soluble” gold appeared around the 5th or 4th century B.C. in Egypt and China. In antiquity, materials were used in an ecological sense for both aesthetic and curative purposes. Colloidal gold was used to make ruby glass 293 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 293−346

11,193 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: After a preliminary survey with the electron microscope of various preparations of colloidal gold, a study was made of the process of nucleation and growth in gold colloids. It was shown that nucleating agents may be identified with reducing agents which form a mixed polymer with chlorauric ion before the reduction to the nucleus takes place. It was also shown that the law of growth is exponential. The average size, the deviation from the average size and the character of the particle size distribution curve are determined by the amount of gold, the nucleation process and the law of growth.

5,962 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Using two-phase (water–toluene) reduction of AuCl4– by sodium borohydride in the presence of an alkanethiol, solutions of 1–3 nm gold particles bearing a surface coating of thiol have been prepared and characterised; this novel material can be handled as a simple chemical compound.

5,936 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Aug 1996-Nature
TL;DR: A method for assembling colloidal gold nanoparticles rationally and reversibly into macroscopic aggregates by using the specificity of DNA interactions to direct the interactions between particles of different size and composition is described.
Abstract: COLLOIDAL particles of metals and semiconductors have potentially useful optical, optoelectronic and material properties1–4 that derive from their small (nanoscopic) size. These properties might lead to applications including chemical sensors, spectro-scopic enhancers, quantum dot and nanostructure fabrication, and microimaging methods2–4. A great deal of control can now be exercised over the chemical composition, size and polydis-persity1,2 of colloidal particles, and many methods have been developed for assembling them into useful aggregates and materials. Here we describe a method for assembling colloidal gold nanoparticles rationally and reversibly into macroscopic aggregates. The method involves attaching to the surfaces of two batches of 13-nm gold particles non-complementary DNA oligo-nucleotides capped with thiol groups, which bind to gold. When we add to the solution an oligonucleotide duplex with 'sticky ends' that are complementary to the two grafted sequences, the nanoparticles self-assemble into aggregates. This assembly process can be reversed by thermal denaturation. This strategy should now make it possible to tailor the optical, electronic and structural properties of the colloidal aggregates by using the specificity of DNA interactions to direct the interactions between particles of different size and composition.

5,892 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Aug 1997-Science
TL;DR: A highly selective, colorimetric polynucleotide detection method based on mercaptoalkyloligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticle probes is reported, which can detect about 10 femtomoles of an oligonucleotide.
Abstract: A highly selective, colorimetric polynucleotide detection method based on mercaptoalkyloligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticle probes is reported. Introduction of a single-stranded target oligonucleotide (30 bases) into a solution containing the appropriate probes resulted in the formation of a polymeric network of nanoparticles with a concomitant red-to-pinkish/purple color change. Hybridization was facilitated by freezing and thawing of the solutions, and the denaturation of these hybrid materials showed transition temperatures over a narrow range that allowed differentiation of a variety of imperfect targets. Transfer of the hybridization mixture to a reverse-phase silica plate resulted in a blue color upon drying that could be detected visually. The unoptimized system can detect about 10 femtomoles of an oligonucleotide.

4,174 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202237
20211,117
20201,335
20191,612
20181,532
20171,712