About: Colostrum is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8481 publications have been published within this topic receiving 182950 citations. The topic is also known as: beestings & bisnings.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition and contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization.
Abstract: This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.
TL;DR: The results indicate that milk bacteria are not contaminants and suggest that the milk microbiome is influenced by several factors that significantly skew its composition, which emphasize the necessity to understand the biological role that the Milk microbiome could potentially play for human health.
Abstract: Background Breast milk is recognized as the most important postpartum element in metabolic and immunologic programming of health of neonates. The factors influencing the milk microbiome and the potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been uncovered. Objective Our objective was to identify pre- and postnatal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. Design We characterized the milk microbial community at 3 different time points by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction in mothers (n = 18) who varied in BMI, weight gain, and mode of delivery. Results We found that the human milk microbiome changes over lactation. Weisella, Leuconostoc, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Lactococcus were predominant in colostrum samples, whereas in 1- and 6-mo milk samples the typical inhabitants of the oral cavity (eg, Veillonella, Leptotrichia, and Prevotella) increased significantly. Milk from obese mothers tended to contain a different and less diverse bacterial community compared with milk from normal-weight mothers. Milk samples from elective but not from nonelective mothers who underwent cesarean delivery contained a different bacterial community than did milk samples from individuals giving birth by vaginal delivery, suggesting that it is not the operation per se but rather the absence of physiological stress or hormonal signals that could influence the microbial transmission process to milk. Conclusions Our results indicate that milk bacteria are not contaminants and suggest that the milk microbiome is influenced by several factors that significantly skew its composition. Because bacteria present in breast milk are among the very first microbes entering the human body, our data emphasize the necessity to understand the biological role that the milk microbiome could potentially play for human health.
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the literature of passive transfer in calves including factors that affect passive transfer status, testing modalities, effects of failure of Passive transfer on baseline mortality, consequences of failure, and some treatment options is presented.
Abstract: Passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins has long been accepted as imperative to optimal calf health Many factors, including timing of colostrum ingestion, the method and volume of colostrum administration, the immunoglobulin concentration of the colostrum ingested, and the age of the dam have been implicated in affecting the optimization of absorption The practice of colostrum pooling, the breed and presence of the dam, and the presence of respiratory acidosis in the calf also may affect passive transfer Various tests have been reported to accurately measure passive transfer status in neonatal calves The radial immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the only tests that directly measure serum IgG concentration All other available tests including serum total solids by refractometry, sodium sulfite turbidity test, zinc sulfate turbidity test, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, and whole blood glutaraldehyde gelation estimate serum IgG concentration based on concentration of total globulins or other proteins whose passive transfer is statistically associated with that of IgG This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature of passive transfer in calves including factors that affect passive transfer status, testing modalities, effects of failure of passive transfer on baseline mortality, consequences of failure of passive transfer, and some treatment options Many previously accepted truisms regarding passive transfer in calves should be rejected based on the results of recent research
TL;DR: The process of colostrogenesis and colostrom composition is reviewed, key components in developing a successful colostrum management program are discussed, and new goals for passive immunity in dairy herds are proposed.
Abstract: Colostrum management is the single most important management factor in determining calf health and survival. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of North American dairy calves suffer from failure of passive transfer of antibodies from colostrum, contributing to excessively high preweaning mortality rates and other short- and long-term losses associated with animal health, welfare, and productivity. A successful colostrum management program requires producers to consistently provide calves with a sufficient volume of clean, high-quality colostrum within the first few hours of life. This article reviews the process of colostrogenesis and discusses important components of colostrum. The key components of delivering and monitoring a successful colostrum management program are discussed.
TL;DR: The bacteriostatic properties of milk were abolished if the iron-binding proteins were saturated with iron, and this effect was also abolished by saturating the lactoferrin with iron.
Abstract: Human milk contains large quantities of iron-binding protein, of which the greater proportion is lactoferrin, though small amounts of transferrin are also present. Three samples of human milk with unsaturated iron-binding capacities of between 56 and 89% had a powerful bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli O111/B4. The bacteriostatic properties of milk were abolished if the iron-binding proteins were saturated with iron. Purified human lactoferrin, in combination with specific E. coli antibody, strongly inhibited the growth of E. coli, and this effect was also abolished by saturating the lactoferrin with iron.Guinea-pig milk also contains lactoferrin and transferrin. Newly born guinea-pigs fed on an artificial diet and dosed with E. coli O111 had higher counts of E. coli O111 in the intestine than suckled animals. The apparent suppressive effect of guinea-pig milk on E. coli in the intestine could be reversed by feeding the iron compound haematin. It seems that iron-binding proteins in milk may play an important part in resistance to infantile enteritis caused by E. coli.
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