Topic

# Coma (optics)

About: Coma (optics) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2400 publications have been published within this topic receiving 37948 citations. The topic is also known as: comatic aberration.

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TL;DR: A wave-front sensor is constructed to measure the irregular as well as the classical aberrations of the eye, providing a more complete description of the Eye, indicating that they are not random defects.

Abstract: We have constructed a wave-front sensor to measure the irregular as well as the classical aberrations of the eye, providing a more complete description of the eye's aberrations than has previously been possible. We show that the wave-front sensor provides repeatable and accurate measurements of the eye's wave aberration. The modulation transfer function of the eye computed from the wave-front sensor is in fair, though not complete, agreement with that obtained under similar conditions on the same observers by use of the double-pass and the interferometric techniques. Irregular aberrations, i.e., those beyond defocus, astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration, do not have a large effect on retinal image quality in normal eyes when the pupil is small (3 mm). However, they play a substantial role when the pupil is large (7.3-mm), reducing visual performance and the resolution of images of the living retina. Although the pattern of aberrations varies from subject to subject, aberrations, including irregular ones, are correlated in left and right eyes of the same subject, indicating that they are not random defects.

792 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a two-dimensional microwave lens with a straight front face was used to generate fractional degree beams, which can operate at very short pulse lengths and can scan more beamwidths than any previously known device of its type.

Abstract: A new "time-delay" scanner consists of a constrained wide-angle two-dimensional microwave lens with a straight front face in which lens elements connect arbitrary points on the inner and outer contours. The lens can operate at very short pulse lengths and can scan more beamwidths than any previously known device of its type. A phase analysis shows that this design has very small coma aberrations and that the lens can generate fractional degree beams. Criteria developed for selecting optimum lens parameters are given. The radiation patterns of an experimental model in which the lens elements consist of coaxial cables show the expected wide-angle characteristics. In further tests incremental scanning was obtained through the use of phase shifters in the coaxial lens elements. The design of symmetrical three-dimensional lenses is briefly discussed. A table of lens contour parameters is given for an optimum lens design with scan angle \alpha of 30\deg .

758 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the relativistic electrons injected in the Coma cluster by some processes (starbursts, AGNs, shocks, turbulence) during a first phase in the past are systematically reaccelerated during a second phase for a relatively long time up to the present time.

Abstract: The radio spectral index map of the Coma halo shows a progressive steepening of the spectral index with increasing radius. Such a steepening cannot be simply justified by models involving continuous injection of fresh particles in the Coma halo or by models involving diffusion of fresh electrons from the central regions.
We propose a two-phase model in which the relativistic electrons injected in the Coma cluster by some processes (starbursts, AGNs, shocks, turbulence) during a first phase in the past are systematically reaccelerated during a second phase for a relatively long time (∼1 Gyr) up to the present time. We show that for reacceleration time-scales of ∼0.1 Gyr this hypothesis can well account for the radio properties of Coma C. For the same range of parameters which explain Coma C we have calculated the expected fluxes from the inverse Compton scattering of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons, finding that the hard X-ray tail discovered by BeppoSAX may be accounted for by the stronger reacceleration allowed by the model.
The possibility of extending the main model assumptions and findings to the case of the other radio haloes is also discussed, the basic predictions being consistent with the observations.

505 citations

01 Jan 1992

TL;DR: Sign Conventions Aberration Free Image Spherical Wavefront, Defocus, and Lateral Shift Angular, Transverse, and Longitudinal Aberration Seidel Aberrations A. Spherical Aberration B. Coma C. Astigmatism D. Field Curvature E. Distortion Zernike Polynomials and Third-Order Aberrations as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. Sign Conventions Aberration-Free Image Spherical Wavefront, Defocus, and Lateral Shift Angular, Transverse, and Longitudinal Aberration Seidel Aberrations A. Spherical Aberration B. Coma C. Astigmatism D. Field Curvature E. Distortion Zernike Polynomials Relationship between Zernike Polynomials and Third-Order Aberrations Peak-to-Valley and RMS Wavefront Aberration Strehl Ratio Chromatic Aberrations Aberrations Introduced by Plane Parallel Plates Aberrations of Simple Thin Lenses 2 4 9 12 15 18 22 24 26 28 28

447 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the relativistic electrons injected in the Coma cluster by some processes (starbursts, AGNs, shocks, turbulence) during a first phase were systematically reaccelerated during a second phase.

Abstract: The radio spectral index map of the Coma halo shows a progressive steepening of the spectral index with increasing radius. Such a steepening cannot be simply justified by models involving continuous injection of fresh particles in the Coma halo or by models involving diffusion of fresh electrons from the central regions. We propose a {\it two phase} model in which the relativistic electrons injected in the Coma cluster by some processes (starbursts, AGNs, shocks, turbulence) during a {\it first phase} in the past are systematically reaccelerated during a {\it second phase} for a relatively long time ($\sim$ 1 Gyr) up to the present time. We show that for reacceleration time scales of $\sim 0.1$ Gyr this hypothesis can well account for the radio properties of Coma C. For the same range of parameters which explain Coma C we have calculated the expected fluxes from the inverse Compton scattering of the CMB photons finding that the hard X-ray tail discovered by BeppoSAX may be accounted for by the stronger reacceleration allowed by the model. The possibility of extending the main model assumptions and findings to the case of the other radio haloes is also discussed, the basic predictions being consistent with the observations.

438 citations