About: Combustion is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 172336 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1950787 citations. The topic is also known as: burning & combusting.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the mechanisms and rate parameters for the gas-phase reactions of nitrogen compounds that are applicable to combustion-generated air pollution are discussed and illustrated by comparison of results from detailed kinetics calculations with experimental data.
01 Jan 2001
01 Jan 1977
TL;DR: In this paper, a model for the rate of combustion which takes into account the intermittent appearance of reacting species in turbulent flames is presented, which is applicable to premixed as well as diffusion flames.
Abstract: Principles of mathematical models as tools in engineering and science are discussed in relation to turbulent combustion modeling. A model is presented for the rate of combustion which takes into account the intermittent appearance of reacting species in turbulent flames. This model relates the rate of combustion to the rate of dissipation of eddies and expresses the rate of reaction by the mean concentration of a reacting specie, the turbulent kinetic energy and the rate of dissipation of this energy. The essential features of this model are that it does not call for predictions of fluctuations of reacting species and that it is applicable to premixed as well as diffusion flames. The combustion model is tested on both premixed and diffusion flames with good results. Special attention is given to soot formation and combustion in turbulent flames. Predictions are made for two C 2 H 2 turbulent diffusion flames by incorporating both the above combustion model and the model for the rate of soot formation developed by Tesner et al., as well as previous observations by Magnussen concerning the behavior of soot in turbulent flames. The predicted results are in close agreement with the experimental data. All predictions in the present paper have been made by modeling turbulence by the k -∈ model. Buoyancy is taken into consideration in the momentum equations. Effects of terms containing density fluctuations have not been included.
TL;DR: In this article, a new HEI study showed that some low-emission diesel engines emit much higher concentrations of nanoparticles than older designs and other low-EMission designs, which has raised questions about whether nanoparticle (number based) emission standards should be imposed.
TL;DR: This article presented a bottom-up estimate of uncertainties in source strength by combining uncertainties in particulate matter emission factors, emission characterization, and fuel use, with uncertainty ranges of 4.3-22 Tg/yr for BC and 17-77 Tg /yr for OC.
Abstract:  We present a global tabulation of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous ‘‘bottom-up’’ inventories of black and organic carbon have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly dependent on combustion practice, we consider combinations of fuel, combustion type, and emission controls and their prevalence on a regional basis. Central estimates of global annual emissions are 8.0 Tg for black carbon and 33.9 Tg for organic carbon. These estimates are lower than previously published estimates by 25–35%. The present inventory is based on 1996 fuel-use data, updating previous estimates that have relied on consumption data from 1984. An offset between decreased emission factors and increased energy use since the base year of the previous inventory prevents the difference between this work and previous inventories from being greater. The contributions of fossil fuel, biofuel, and open burning are estimated as 38%, 20%, and 42%, respectively, for BC, and 7%, 19%, and 74%, respectively, for OC. We present a bottom-up estimate of uncertainties in source strength by combining uncertainties in particulate matter emission factors, emission characterization, and fuel use. The total uncertainties are about a factor of 2, with uncertainty ranges of 4.3–22 Tg/yr for BC and 17–77 Tg/yr for OC. Low-technology combustion contributes greatly to both the emissions and the uncertainties. Advances in emission characterization for small residential, industrial, and mobile sources and topdown analysis combining field measurements and transport modeling with iterative inventory development will be required to reduce the uncertainties further. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801); 0322 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Constituent sources and sinks; 0345 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution—urban and regional (0305); 0360 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation; 0365 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere—composition and chemistry; KEYWORDS: emission, black carbon, organic carbon, fossil fuel, biofuel, biomass burning
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