Topic

# Communication channel

About: Communication channel is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 137411 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1715077 citation(s). The topic is also known as: communication channel & communications channel.

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Alcatel-Lucent

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the performance of using multi-element array (MEA) technology to improve the bit-rate of digital wireless communications and showed that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available.

Abstract: This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bit-rates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multi-element array (MEA) technology, that is processing the spatial dimension (not just the time dimension) to improve wireless capacities in certain applications. Specifically, we present some basic information theory results that promise great advantages of using MEAs in wireless LANs and building to building wireless communication links. We explore the important case when the channel characteristic is not available at the transmitter but the receiver knows (tracks) the characteristic which is subject to Rayleigh fading. Fixing the overall transmitted power, we express the capacity offered by MEA technology and we see how the capacity scales with increasing SNR for a large but practical number, n, of antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver.
We investigate the case of independent Rayleigh faded paths between antenna elements and find that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available. Compared to the baseline n = 1 case, which by Shannon‘s classical formula scales as one more bit/cycle for every 3 dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increase, remarkably with MEAs, the scaling is almost like n more bits/cycle for each 3 dB increase in SNR. To illustrate how great this capacity is, even for small n, take the cases n = 2, 4 and 16 at an average received SNR of 21 dB. For over 99% of the channels the capacity is about 7, 19 and 88 bits/cycle respectively, while if n = 1 there is only about 1.2 bit/cycle at the 99% level. For say a symbol rate equal to the channel bandwith, since it is the bits/symbol/dimension that is relevant for signal constellations, these higher capacities are not unreasonable. The 19 bits/cycle for n = 4 amounts to 4.75 bits/symbol/dimension while 88 bits/cycle for n = 16 amounts to 5.5 bits/symbol/dimension. Standard approaches such as selection and optimum combining are seen to be deficient when compared to what will ultimately be possible. New codecs need to be invented to realize a hefty portion of the great capacity promised.

10,358 citations

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TL;DR: A simple characterization of the optimal tradeoff curve is given and used to evaluate the performance of existing multiple antenna schemes for the richly scattered Rayleigh-fading channel.

Abstract: Multiple antennas can be used for increasing the amount of diversity or the number of degrees of freedom in wireless communication systems. We propose the point of view that both types of gains can be simultaneously obtained for a given multiple-antenna channel, but there is a fundamental tradeoff between how much of each any coding scheme can get. For the richly scattered Rayleigh-fading channel, we give a simple characterization of the optimal tradeoff curve and use it to evaluate the performance of existing multiple antenna schemes.

4,264 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: This paper describes a wireless communication architecture known as vertical BLAST (Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time) or V-BLAST, which has been implemented in real-time in the laboratory and demonstrated spectral efficiencies of 20-40 bps/Hz in an indoor propagation environment at realistic SNRs and error rates.

Abstract: Information theory research has shown that the rich-scattering wireless channel is capable of enormous theoretical capacities if the multipath is properly exploited In this paper, we describe a wireless communication architecture known as vertical BLAST (Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time) or V-BLAST, which has been implemented in real-time in the laboratory Using our laboratory prototype, we have demonstrated spectral efficiencies of 20-40 bps/Hz in an indoor propagation environment at realistic SNRs and error rates To the best of our knowledge, wireless spectral efficiencies of this magnitude are unprecedented and are furthermore unattainable using traditional techniques

3,855 citations

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TL;DR: A novel scheme that first selects the best relay from a set of M available relays and then uses this "best" relay for cooperation between the source and the destination and achieves the same diversity-multiplexing tradeoff as achieved by more complex protocols.

Abstract: Cooperative diversity has been recently proposed as a way to form virtual antenna arrays that provide dramatic gains in slow fading wireless environments. However, most of the proposed solutions require distributed space-time coding algorithms, the careful design of which is left for future investigation if there is more than one cooperative relay. We propose a novel scheme that alleviates these problems and provides diversity gains on the order of the number of relays in the network. Our scheme first selects the best relay from a set of M available relays and then uses this "best" relay for cooperation between the source and the destination. We develop and analyze a distributed method to select the best relay that requires no topology information and is based on local measurements of the instantaneous channel conditions. This method also requires no explicit communication among the relays. The success (or failure) to select the best available path depends on the statistics of the wireless channel, and a methodology to evaluate performance for any kind of wireless channel statistics, is provided. Information theoretic analysis of outage probability shows that our scheme achieves the same diversity-multiplexing tradeoff as achieved by more complex protocols, where coordination and distributed space-time coding for M relay nodes is required, such as those proposed by Laneman and Wornell (2003). The simplicity of the technique allows for immediate implementation in existing radio hardware and its adoption could provide for improved flexibility, reliability, and efficiency in future 4G wireless systems.

3,119 citations

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01 Jun 2002TL;DR: This work shows that true beamforming gains can be achieved when there are sufficient users, even though very limited channel feedback is needed, and proposes the use of multiple transmit antennas to induce large and fast channel fluctuations so that multiuser diversity can still be exploited.

Abstract: Multiuser diversity is a form of diversity inherent in a wireless network, provided by independent time-varying channels across the different users. The diversity benefit is exploited by tracking the channel fluctuations of the users and scheduling transmissions to users when their instantaneous channel quality is near the peak. The diversity gain increases with the dynamic range of the fluctuations and is thus limited in environments with little scattering and/or slow fading. In such environments, we propose the use of multiple transmit antennas to induce large and fast channel fluctuations so that multiuser diversity can still be exploited. The scheme can be interpreted as opportunistic beamforming and we show that true beamforming gains can be achieved when there are sufficient users, even though very limited channel feedback is needed. Furthermore, in a cellular system, the scheme plays an additional role of opportunistic nulling of the interference created on users of adjacent cells. We discuss the design implications of implementing. this scheme in a complete wireless system.

3,015 citations