Topic

# Compressive strength

About: Compressive strength is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 64455 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1053875 citations. The topic is also known as: compression strength & compressive yield strength.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new plastic-damage model for concrete subjected to cyclic loading is developed using the concepts of fracture-energy-based damage and stiffness degradation in continuum damage mechanics.

Abstract: A new plastic-damage model for concrete subjected to cyclic loading is developed using the concepts of fracture-energy-based damage and stiffness degradation in continuum damage mechanics. Two damage variables, one for tensile damage and the other for compressive damage, and a yield function with multiple-hardening variables are introduced to account for different damage states. The uniaxial strength functions are factored into two parts, corresponding to the effective stress and the degradation of elastic stiffness. The constitutive relations for elastoplastic responses are decoupled from the degradation damage response, which provides advantages in the numerical implementation. In the present model, the strength function for the effective stress is used to control the evolution of the yield surface, so that calibration with experimental results is convenient. A simple and thermodynamically consistent scalar degradation model is introduced to simulate the effect of damage on elastic stiffness and its recovery during crack opening and closing. The performance of the plastic-damage model is demonstrated with several numerical examples of simulating monotonically and cyclically loaded concrete specimens.

2,825 citations

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01 Dec 1977TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe an empirical law of friction for rock joints, which can be used both for extrapolating and predicting shear strength data, and demonstrate that it can be estimated to within ± 1° for any one of the eight rock types investigated.

Abstract: The paper describes an empirical law of friction for rock joints which can be used both for extrapolating and predicting shear strength data. The equation is based on three index parameters; the joint roughness coefficientJRC, the joint wall compressive strengthJCS, and the residual friction angleφ
r
. All these index values can be measured in the laboratory. They can also be measured in the field. Index tests and subsequent shear box tests on more than 100 joint samples have demonstrated thatφ
r
can be estimated to within ± 1° for any one of the eight rock types investigated. The mean value of the peak shear strength angle (arctanτ/σ
n
) for the same 100 joints was estimated to within 1/2°. The exceptionally close prediction of peak strength is made possible by performing self-weight (low stress) sliding tests on blocks with throughgoing joints. The total friction angle (arctanτ/σ
n
) at which sliding occurs provides an estimate of the joint roughness coefficientJRC. The latter is constant over a range of effective normal stress of at least four orders of magnitude. However, it is found that bothJRC andJCS reduce with increasing joint length. Increasing the length of joint therefore reduces not only the peak shear strength, but also the peak dilation angle and the peak shear stiffness. These important scale effects can be predicted at a fraction of the cost of performing large scale in situ direct shear tests.

2,139 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the properties of FDM parts fabricated by the FDM 1650 were analyzed using a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach, such as raster orientation, air gap, bead width, color and model temperature.

Abstract: Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies provide the ability to fabricate initial prototypes from various model materials. Stratasys Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a typical RP process that can fabricate prototypes out of ABS plastic. To predict the mechanical behavior of FDM parts, it is critical to understand the material properties of the raw FDM process material, and the effect that FDM build parameters have on anisotropic material properties. This paper characterizes the properties of ABS parts fabricated by the FDM 1650. Using a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach, the process parameters of FDM, such as raster orientation, air gap, bead width, color, and model temperature were examined. Tensile strengths and compressive strengths of directionally fabricated specimens were measured and compared with injection molded FDM ABS P400 material. For the FDM parts made with a 0.003 inch overlap between roads, the typical tensile strength ranged between 65 and 72 percent of the strength of injection molded ABS P400. The compressive strength ranged from 80 to 90 percent of the injection molded FDM ABS. Several build rules for designing FDM parts were formulated based on experimental results.

1,886 citations

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Bouygues

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed an ultra-high strength ductile concrete designated RPC (Reactive Powder Concrete), which was made possible by the application of a certain number of basic principles relating to the composition, mixing and post set heat curing of the concrete.

1,699 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of mineral properties on the compressive strength of the synthesized geopolymer was investigated, and it was shown that a wide range of natural Al-Si minerals could serve as potential source materials for the synthesis of geopolymers.

1,424 citations