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Condenser (heat transfer)

About: Condenser (heat transfer) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 57948 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 313899 citation(s). more

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29 Dec 1997-
Abstract: CLASSIFICATIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS Introduction Recuperation and Regeneration Transfer Processes Geometry of Construction Heat Transfer Mechanisms Flow Arrangements Applications Selection of Heat Exchangers BASIC DESIGN METHODS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS Introduction Arrangement of Flow Path in Heat Exchangers Basic Equations in Design Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient The LMTD Method for Heat Exchangers Analysis The e-NTU Method for Heat Exchangers Analysis Heat Exchanger Design Calculation Variable Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Heat Exchanger Design Methodology FORCED CONVECTION CORRELATIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE SIDE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS Introduction Laminar Forced Convection The Effect of Variable Physical Properties Turbulent Forced Convection Turbulent Flow in Smooth Straight Noncircular Ducts The Effect of Variable Physical Properties in Turbulent Forced Convection Summary of Forced Convection in Straight Ducts Heat Transfer from Smooth-Tube Bundles Heat Transfer in Helical Coils and Spirals Heat Transfer in Bends HEAT EXCHANGER PRESSURE DROP AND PUMPING POWER Introduction Tube-Side Pressure Drop Pressure Drop in Tube Bundles in Cross-Flow Pressure Drop in Helical and Spiral Coils Pressure Drop in Bends and Fittings Pressure Drop for Abrupt Contraction, Expansion, and Momentum Change Heat Transfer and Pumping Power Relationship FOULING OF HEAT EXCHANGERS Introduction Basic Considerations Effects of Fouling Aspects of Fouling Design of Heat Exchangers Subject to Fouling Operation of Heat Exchangers Subject to Fouling Techniques to Control Fouling DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS Introduction Thermal and Hydraulic Design of Inner Tube Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Annulus Parallel-Series Arrangements of Hairpins Total Pressure Drop Design and Operational Features DESIGN CORRELATIONS FOR CONDENSERS AND EVAPORATORS Introduction Condensation Film Condensation on a Single Horizontal Tube Film Condensation on Tube Bundles Condensation Inside Tubes Flow Boiling SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS Introduction Basic Components Basic Design Procedure of a Heat Exchanger Shell-Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS Introduction Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop THE GASKETED-PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS Introduction Mechanical Features Operational Characteristics Passes and Flow Arrangements Applications Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Calculations Thermal Performance CONDENSERS AND EVAPORATORS Introduction Shell and Tube Condensers Steam Turbine Exhaust Condensers Plate Condensers Air Cooled Condensers Direct Contact Condensers Thermal Design of Shell-and-Tube Condensers Design and Operational Considerations Condensers for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Evaporators for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Thermal Analysis Standards for Evaporators and Condensers APPENDICES Physical Properties of Metals and Nonmetals Physical Properties of Air, Water, Liquid Metals, and Refrigerants Each chapter also contains sections of Nomenclature, References, and Problems more

1,074 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
M. K. Dobson1, John C. Chato2Institutions (2)
Abstract: An experimental study of heat transfer and flow regimes during condensation of refrigerants in horizontal tubes was conducted. Measurements were made in smooth, round tubes with diameters ranging from 3.14 mm to 7.04 mm. The refrigerants tested were R-12, R-22, R-134a, and near-azeotropic blends of R-32/R-125 in 50 percent/50 percent and 60 percent/40 percent compositions. The study focused primarily on measurement and prediction of condensing heat transfer coefficients and the relationship between heat transfer coefficients and two-phase flow regimes. Flow regimes were observed visually at the inlet and outlet of the test condenser as the heat transfer data were collected. Stratified, wavy, wavy annular, annular, annular mist, and slug flows were observed. True mist flow without a stable wall film was not observed during condensation tests. The experimental results were compared with existing flow regime maps and some corrections are suggested. The heat transfer behavior was controlled by the prevailing flow regime. For the purpose of analyzing condensing heat transfer behavior, the various flow regimes were divided into two broad categories of gravity-dominated and shear-dominated flows. In the gravity dominated flow regime, the dominant heat transfer mode was laminar film condensation in the top of the tube. This regime was characterized by heat transfer coefficients that depended on the wall-to-refrigerant temperature difference but were nearly independent of mass flux. In the shear-dominated flow regime, forced-convective condensation was the dominant heat transfer mechanism. This regime was characterized by heat transfer coefficients that were independent of temperature difference but very dependent on mass flux and quality. Heat transfer correlations that were developed for each of these flow regimes successfully predicted data from the present study and from several other sources. more

623 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Donghong Wei1, Xuesheng Lu1, Zhen Lu1, Jianming Gu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The system performance analysis and optimization of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system using HFC-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane) as working fluid driven by exhaust heat is presented. The thermodynamic performances of an ORC system under disturbances have been analyzed. The results show: maximizing the usage of exhaust heat as much as possible is a good way to improve system output net power and efficiency; the degree of sub-cooling at the condenser outlet should be small (0.5–0.6 K); when the ambient temperature is too high, the system output net power and efficiency will deteriorate with the departure from nominal state possibly exceeding 30%. According to the running environment, choosing a proper nominal state is a good idea for improving the system output net power and efficiency. more

493 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that in order to produce premature contractions by shocks applied during systole it was necessary to utilize very strong break shocks, and in the zeal to elicit such contractions ventricular fibrillation all too often terminated the experiment. more

Abstract: It is generally believed that in order to induce ventricular fibrillation by electric currents they must not only have a minimal intensity but must act for a fair interval of time (ca, several seconds). Indeed, the variation in duration of a current has been used as a criterion of the sensitivity of the heart (1). In 1934 King (2) and in 1936, Ferris, King, Spence and Williams (3) reported that shocks as short as 0.03 second are effective in fibrillating the ventricles provided they are applied during the occurrence of the T wave, which they interpreted as the partial refractory phase. Previous to this, de Boer (4) had shown that a process similar to fibrillation in mammalian hearts can be induced in the frog’s ventricle by induction shocks applied near the end of the systole, but he believed only during a hypodynamic state. Andrus, Carter and Wheeler (5) found that an induction shock similarly introduced into normal auricles of dogs caused auricular fibrillation. During 1923-24 the senior author (6) in studying the response of the dog’s ventricles to strong induction shocks demonstrated that the mammalian ventricle is not refractory to stimuli for a considerable, though apparently variable, interval of systole (last 0.03-0.09 sec. of systole). In order to produce premature contractions by shocks applied during systole it was necessary to utilize very strong break shocks, and in the zeal to elicit such contractions ventricular fibrillation all too often terminated the experiment. A survey of many records has shown that this was due to single shocks and that all were delivered somewhere during the non-refractory phase of ventricular systole. In view of the importance of observations that a very brief shock is capable of inducing fibrillation even when the exciting current traverses only a small area of the ventricle, it seemed important more

413 citations

13 Jun 1994-
Abstract: An ultrasound transducer assembly having a housing, a transducer array mounted in the housing, and active cooling mechanism positioned adjacent to the transducer array for actively removing heat generated by the array by transport of heat energy from the affected site. The active cooling mechanism may comprise a heat exchanger including a closed loop circulating coolant system circulating coolant, or a single-pass flowed coolant, passing through the heat exchanger, a heat pipe, a thermoelectric cooler, an evaporative/condenser system, and/or a phase change material. One or more heat exchangers may be used having gas or liquid coolants flowing therethrough. The heat exchangers and coolant pumps may be located in various components of the transducer assembly, including the array housing, the connector assemblies or the ultrasound console. more

325 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Gou Zhongwu

22 papers, 43 citations

Xiaoze Du

18 papers, 309 citations

Lijun Yang

15 papers, 264 citations

Eiichi Sato

13 papers, 169 citations

Holger Sedlak

12 papers, 27 citations