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About: Conductivity is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 46709 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 966917 citation(s).

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Abstract: The experimental evidence concerning the density of states in amorphous semiconductors and the ranges of energy in which states are localized is reviewed; this includes d.c. and a.c. conductivity, drift mobility and optical absorption. There is evidence that for some chalcogenide semiconductors the model proposed by Cohen, Fritzsche and Ovshinsky (1969) should be modified by introducing a band of localized states, near the centre of the gap. The values of C, when the d.c. conductivity is expressed as C exp (- E/kT), are considered. The behaviour of the optical absorption coefficient near the absorption edge and its relation to exciton formation are discussed. Finally, an interpretation of some results on photoconductivity is offered.

3,013 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the past ten years we have witnessed a revival of, and subsequent rapid expansion in, the research on zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor. Being initially considered as a substrate for GaN and related alloys, the availability of high-quality large bulk single crystals, the strong luminescence demonstrated in optically pumped lasers and the prospects of gaining control over its electrical conductivity have led a large number of groups to turn their research for electronic and photonic devices to ZnO in its own right. The high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy make ZnO suitable for a wide range of devices, including transparent thin-film transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes that operate in the blue and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In spite of the recent rapid developments, controlling the electrical conductivity of ZnO has remained a major challenge. While a number of research groups have reported achieving p-type ZnO, there are still problems concerning the reproducibility of the results and the stability of the p-type conductivity. Even the cause of the commonly observed unintentional n-type conductivity in as-grown ZnO is still under debate. One approach to address these issues consists of growing high-quality single crystalline bulk and thin films in which the concentrations of impurities and intrinsic defects are controlled. In this review we discuss the status of ZnO as a semiconductor. We first discuss the growth of bulk and epitaxial films, growth conditions and their influence on the incorporation of native defects and impurities. We then present the theory of doping and native defects in ZnO based on density-functional calculations, discussing the stability and electronic structure of native point defects and impurities and their influence on the electrical conductivity and optical properties of ZnO. We pay special attention to the possible causes of the unintentional n-type conductivity, emphasize the role of impurities, critically review the current status of p-type doping and address possible routes to controlling the electrical conductivity in ZnO. Finally, we discuss band-gap engineering using MgZnO and CdZnO alloys.

2,962 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Zinc oxide, a wide-band-gap semiconductor with many technological applications, typically exhibits n-type conductivity. The cause of this conductivity has been widely debated. A first-principles investigation, based on density functional theory, produces strong evidence that hydrogen acts as a source of conductivity: it can incorporate in high concentrations and behaves as a shallow donor. This behavior is unexpected and very different from hydrogen's role in other semiconductors, in which it acts only as a compensating center and always counteracts the prevailing conductivity. These insights have important consequences for control and utilization of hydrogen in oxides in general.

2,873 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new reversible photoelectronic effect is reported for amorphous Si produced by glow discharge of SiH4. Long exposure to light decreases both the photoconductivity and the dark conductivity, the latter by nearly four orders of magnitude. Annealing above 150 °C reverses the process. A model involving optically induced changes in gap states is proposed. The results have strong implications for both the physical nature of the material and for its applications in thin‐film solar cells, as well as the reproducibility of measurements on discharge‐produced Si.

2,626 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure that exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature, which represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes.
Abstract: Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

2,564 citations

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