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About: Connotation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2096 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 8265 citation(s).

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Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: The task of deciding whether a given term has a positive connotations, or a negative connotation, or has no subjective connotation at all is confronted, and it is shown that determining subjectivity and orientation is a much harder problem than determining orientation alone.
Abstract: Opinion mining is a recent subdiscipline of computational linguistics which is concerned not with the topic a document is about, but with the opinion it expresses To aid the extraction of opinions from text, recent work has tackled the issue of determining the orientation of “subjective” terms contained in text, ie deciding whether a term that carries opinionated content has a positive or a negative connotation This is believed to be of key importance for identifying the orientation of documents, ie determining whether a document expresses a positive or negative opinion about its subject matter We contend that the plain determination of the orientation of terms is not a realistic problem, since it starts from the nonrealistic assumption that we already know whether a term is subjective or not; this would imply that a linguistic resource that marks terms as “subjective” or “objective” is available, which is usually not the case In this paper we confront the task of deciding whether a given term has a positive connotation, or a negative connotation, or has no subjective connotation at all; this problem thus subsumes the problem of determining subjectivity and the problem of determining orientation We tackle this problem by testing three different variants of a semi-supervised method previously proposed for orientation detection Our results show that determining subjectivity and orientation is a much harder problem than determining orientation alone

318 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The work community is becoming the most significant community for many people. We are coming to expect our work ‐ where we spend most of our time ‐ to satisfy our deeply held needs for wholeness and to help provide spiritual support for our values and our aspirations for personal as well as economic growth. Reports on original research which supports a growing literature attesting to the centrality of work in meeting both economic and spiritual needs. Spirit refers to the vital, energizing force or principle in the person, the core of self. Respondent managers understand spirit in its secular connotation as defining self meaning and motivation for action. Begins a definition of a model of leadership based on this kind of spiritual relationship, one founded on morality, stewardship and community. Also lists some critical issues that this emerging leadership model faces.

251 citations

Fredrik Barth1
01 Jan 1987
Abstract: Foreword Jack Goody Map 1. The problem 2. An attempt at systematic comparison: descent and ideas of conception 3. The possible interrelations of sub-traditions: reading sequence from distribution 4. The context for events of change 5. The results of process - variations in connotation 6. Secret thoughts and understandings 7. The stepwise articulation of a vision 8. Experience and concept formation 9. The insights pursued by Ok thinkers 10. General and comparative perspectives 11. Some reflections on theory and method Bibliography Index.

228 citations

01 Jan 2006
Abstract: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Drawing upon existing literature, this paper briefly discusses aspects of conspicuous consumption. Analysis of the construct has been done in the perspective of changing capitalist structure and dominating socio-philosophical ideologies, especially postmodernism. Effort has been made to extend the original concept and propose necessary refinement and integration of relevant concepts to enable a meaningful, holistic, and contemporary interpretation of the said construct. This paper examines different aspects of consumer behavior, helps to generate some important directions for future research in the field, and also discusses these issues in the context of the transitional socio-economic background of India. Keywords: Conspicuous Consumption, Postmodernism, Cultural Capital, Taste, India ********** By looking into any standard English dictionary for the meaning of the word "conspicuous," one gets a variety of lexicographic entries including "eye catching," and "prominent;" but the word acquires a significantly different connotation in the context of "consumption" when it clearly indicates the phenomenon of "wasteful and lavish consumption expenses to enhance social prestige." Based entirely on observation, more than a hundred years ago, Thorstein Veblen (1899) proposed that American rich were spending a significant portion of their time and money on unnecessary and unproductive leisure expenditures and coined the term conspicuous consumption to describe the behavior; this linguistic construct has been used so widely that it has entered into popular English lexicon only in this particular sense of the term (Oxford English Dictionary). Effort in studying the phenomenon of conspicuous consumption can be adequately justified by the concept's near universality and timelessness; McCracken (1987, pp. 50) notes that "conspicuous and competitive consumption are especially important to the study of the history of consumption because they play an important role in the growth of a consumer society." However, any analysis of consumer behavior has to be done in the perspective of changing economic-political-social contexts or even philosophical thoughts, and assessment of the conspicuous consumption construct cannot be an exception. The focus of this paper is restricted to the discussion and analysis of some important theoretical work on the subject, from the perspective of changing time, evolving business principles and ideologies, and existing as well as evolving literature. In the process, we extend the original Veblenian thesis through a review, refinement, and integration of divergent concepts in order to arrive at a meaningful conclusion regarding the contempory nature of this construct and the proper scope for further research. In this spirit we propose a periodic-structural analysis of conspicuous consumption behaviour (Table 1), depicting its evolution, nature and character. GENESIS OF THE CONCEPT To discuss the background of the development of Veblen's thesis, we draw from the work of Page (1992). The leisure class, as discussed by Veblen, consisted of the families of the top business and landowning families in the United States: the Harrimans, the Mellons, and the Fricks, to name a few. Similarly in Europe the old moneyed families, like the Astors and Spencers, habitually spoiled themselves through overconsumption in marriages, business alliances, and leisure activities. A strikingly similar yet parallel lifestyle has been documented even in India in the 19th century (Sastri 1983). During this period of the evolution of colonial capitalism and strongly established feudalism, the nouveaux riche of the city of Calcutta used to spend obnoxiously huge sums of money on grand feasts, betting, musical extravaganzas, brothel-visits, and other showy yet meaningless events; so much so that these stories have become a part of local folklore and other forms of popular culture. …

176 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: "Feed-forward" is a technique that encourages families to imagine the pattern of their relationships at some future point in time. Questions about the future, in conjunction with positive connotation, put families in a metaposition to their own dilemmas and thus facilitate change by opening up new solutions for old problems.

171 citations

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