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Constant current

About: Constant current is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 23244 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 158637 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A method is described in which crystalline silicon can be used as a practical anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Commercial lithium-ion cells are typically charged at a constant current to a fixed voltage and then are held by the charger at constant voltage until the current decreases to a certain value (also known as constant current/constant voltage or CCCV charging). It is first shown that CCCV charging can be used to reversibly cycle crystalline silicon and limit its capacity. A cycling method is then demonstrated in which crystalline silicon is first partially converted to amorphous silicon, in situ, during conditioning cycles. After the conditioning cycles the silicon can be cycled normally, using CCCV cycling limits, with good coulombic efficiency and little overlithiation during the first cycle.

914 citations

27 Oct 2006
Abstract: In a method of charging a battery pack, the pack is inserted in a charger and an initial set of checks of cell voltage and pack temperature is performed. Once the initial set of checks is satisfied, the cells may be charged at a first constant current level. The first constant current level is adjusted to one or more lower levels of constant current until cell voltages of all the cells are within a full charge voltage window. The voltage window is defined between a minimum full charge cell voltage level and a maximum full charge cell voltage level. The charge may be terminated once all of the cells are within the full charge voltage window.

647 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1994
Abstract: Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors can be applied to applications requiring wide-speed operation. The current vector control algorithm of an interior permanent magnet synchronous (IPM) motor for constant power operation over the base speed is proposed. As the available voltage controlling the armature current vector is small in the flux-weakening constant power region, the current vector sometimes becomes uncontrollable in transient operations because of the current regulator saturation. The high-performance current regulator is also proposed to improve the current responses in the flux-weakening region, which includes the decoupling current controller and the voltage command compensator. The control performances are confirmed by several drive tests with respect to the prototype IPM motor. >

636 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A first principles-based model has been developed to simulate the capacity fade of Li-ion batteries. Incorporation of a continuous occurrence of the solvent reduction reaction during constant current and constant voltage (CC-CV) charging explains the capacity fade of the battery. The effect of parameters such as end of charge voltage and depth of discharge, the film resistance, the exchange current density, and the over voltage of the parasitic reaction on the capacity fade and battery performance were studied qualitatively. The parameters that were updated for every cycle as a result of the side reaction were state-of-charge of the electrode materials and the film resistance, both estimated at the end of CC-CV charging. The effect of rate of solvent reduction reaction and the conductivity of the film formed were also studied. © 2004 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

586 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Sheng S. Zhang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The effect of the charging protocol on the cycle life of a commercial 18650 Li-ion cell was studied using three methods: (1) constant current (CC) charging, (2) constant power (CP) charging, and (3) multistage constant current (MCC) charging. The MCC-charging consists of two CC steps, which starts with a low current to charge the initial 10% capacity followed by a high current charging until the cell voltage reaches 4.2 V. Using these methods, respectively, the cell was charged to 4.2 V followed by a constant voltage (CV) charging until the current declined to 0.05 C. Results showed that the cycle life of the cell strongly depended on the charging protocol even if the same charging rate was used. Among these three methods, the CC-method was found to be more suitable for slow charging (0.5 C) while the CP-method was better for fast charging (1 C). Impedance analyses indicated that the capacity loss during cycling was mainly attributed to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as a result of the progressive growth of surface layers on the surface of two electrodes. Fast charging resulted in an accelerated capacity fading due to the loss of Li + ions and the related growth of a surface layer, which was associated with metallic lithium plating onto the anode and a high polarization at the electrolyte–electrode interface. Analyses of the cell electrochemistry showed that use of a reduced current to charge the initial 10% capacity and near the end of charge, respectively, was favorable for long cycle life. Published by Elsevier B.V.

421 citations

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