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Contactor

About: Contactor is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17002 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 66115 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Relé.
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BookDOI
31 Mar 1999
Abstract: Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Introduction Editor Contributors Contact Interface Conduction Electrical Contact Resistance: Fundamental Principles Roland S Timsit Introduction Electrical Constriction Resistance Effect of Surface Films on Constriction and Contact Resistance Temperature of an Electrically Heated a-Spot Mechanics of a-Spot Formation Breakdown of Classical Electrical Contact Theory in Small Contact Spots Constriction Resistance at High Frequencies Summary Acknowledgements References Introduction to Contact Tarnishing and Corrosion Paul G Slade Introduction Corrosion Rates Corrosion Gases Types of Corrosion Gas Concentrations in the Atmosphere Measurements Mixed Flow Gas Laboratory Testing Electronic Connectors Power Connectors Other Considerations Acknowledgements References Gas Corrosion William H Abbott and Paul G Slade Introduction The Field Environments for Electrical Contacts Laboratory Accelerated Testing Lubrication and Inhibition of Corrosion Acknowledgement References Effect of Dust Contamination on Electrical Contacts Ji Gao Zhang Introduction Dusty Environment and Dust Composition The Characteristics of Dust Particles Application Conditions in Dusty Environment Theoretical Analysis of Connector Contact Failure due to the Dust Future Work References Nonarcing Contacts Power Connectors Milenko Braunovic Introduction Types of Power Connectors Properties of Conductor and Connector Materials Parameters Affecting Performance of Power Connections Palliative Measures Connector Degradation Prognostic Models Shape-Memory Alloys (SMA) Metal Foam Materials Installation of Power Connections Accelerated Current-Cycling Tests (Standards) References Low-Power Commercial, Automotive, and Appliance Connections Anthony Lee and George Drew Introduction Connectors Contact Terminals Degradation of Connector Contact Automotive Connector Contacts Summary References Tribology of Electronic Connectors: Contact Sliding Wear, Fretting, and Lubrication Roland S Timsit and Morton Antler Introduction Sliding Wear Fretting Lubrication References Materials, Coatings, and Platings Morton Antler and Paul G Slade Introduction Metallic Finishes Properties Related to Porosity Metallurgical and Structural Properties Physical and Mechanical Properties Acknowledgement References The Electric Arc and Switching Device Technology The Arc and Interruption Paul G Slade Introduction The Fourth State of Matter Establishing an Arc The Formation of the Electric Arc The Arc in Air at Atmospheric Pressure The Arc in Vacuum Arc Interruption Acknowledgements References The Consequences of Arcing Paul G Slade Introduction Arcing Time Arc Erosion of Electrical Contacts Blow-Off Force Contact Welding Changes in the Contact Surface as a Result of Arcing Acknowledgements References Reed Switches Kunio Hinohara Principles and Design of the Reed Switch Recommended Contact Plating Contact Surface Degradation and Countermeasures Applications of Reed Switches References Low Current and High Frequency Miniature Switches: Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Metal Contact Switches Benjamin F Toler, Ronald A Coutu, Jr, and John W McBride Introduction Micro-Contact Resistance Modeling Contact Materials for Performance and Reliability Failure Modes and Reliability Conclusion References Low Current Switching John W McBride Introduction and Device Classification Device Types Design Parameters for Static Switching Contacts Mechanical Design Parameters The Measurement of Contact Wear and Contact Dynamics Electrical Characteristics of Low-Current Switching Devices at Opening Electrical Characteristics of Low-Current Switching Devices at Closure Summary Acknowledgements References Medium to High Current Switching: Low Voltage Contractors and Circuit Breakers, and Vacuum Interrupters Manfred Lindmayer General Aspects of Switching in Air Contacts for Switching in Air Low-Voltage Contactors Low-Voltage Circuit-Breakers and Miniature Circuit-Breakers Simulations of Low-Voltage Switching Devices Vacuum Interrupters References Arc Faults and Electrical Safety John J Shea Introduction Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs) Arcing Faults Glowing Connections Arcing Fault Properties Other Types of Arcing Faults Conclusions References Arcing Contact Materials Arcing Contact Materials Gerald J Witter Introduction Silver Metal Oxides Silver Refractory Metals Vacuum Interrupter Materials Tungsten Contacts Non-Noble Silver Alloys Silver-Nickel Contact Materials Silver Alloys and Noble Metals Silver-Graphite Contact Materials Conclusion Acknowledgements References Contact Design and Attachment Gerald J Witter and Guenther Horn Introduction Staked Contact Assembly Designs Welded Contact Assembly Designs Brazed Contact Assembly Designs Clad Metals, Inlay, and Edge Lay Contact Alloys for Non-Arcing Separable Contacts Acknowledgements References Electrical Contact Material Testing Design and Measurement Gerald J Witter and Werner Rieder Objectives Device Testing and Model Switch Testing Electrical Contact Testing Variables Electrical Testing Result Types and Measurement Methods References Arc Interactions with Contaminants Gerald J Witter and Werner Rieder Introduction Organic Contamination and Activation Mineral Particulate Contamination of Arcing Contacts Silicone Contamination of Arcing Contacts Lubricants with Refractory Fillers Oxidation of Contact Materials Resistance Effects from Long Arcs Acknowledgements References Sliding Electrical Contacts Sliding Electrical Contacts (Graphitic Type Lubrication) Kiochiro Sawa and Erle I Shobert II Introduction Mechanical Aspects Chemical Aspects Electrical Effects Thermal Effects Brush Wear Brush Materials and Abrasion Summary References Illustrative Modern Brush Applications Wilferd E Yohe and William A Nystrom Introduction Brush Materials Brush Applications Sliding Contacts for Instrumentation and Control Glenn Dorsey and Jax Glossbrenner Introduction Sliding Contact-The Micro Perspective Electrical Performance Micro-Environment of Contact Region Macro Sliding Contact Materials for Sliding Contacts Friction and Wear Characteristics Contact Parameters and Sliding-Contact Assemblies Future Summary Acknowledgements References Metal Fiber Brushes Glenn Dorsey and Doris Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf Introduction Sliding Wear of Multi-Fiber Brushes Surface Films, Friction, and Materials Properties Electrical Contact Brush Dynamics Future Summary Acknowledgements References Contact Data Useful Electric Contact Information Paul G Slade Introduction Notes to the Tables References Author Index Subject Index

728 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jingliang Li1, Bing Hung Chen2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Separation of CO2 from a gas stream, using a hollow fiber membrane contactor, is a promising alternative to conventional techniques such as column absorption. The major advantages of the membrane absorption are the larger interfacial area, a better device-modularity and more operational flexibility. The factors that impact the efficiency and performance of the absorption process using a hollow fiber membrane contactor, as well as the evaluation of model parameters are reviewed in this paper. Strategies on further development of this process are also proposed.

442 citations


Book
14 Nov 2007
Abstract: PREFACE INTRODUCTION VACUUM INTERRUPTER THEORY AND DESIGN HIGH-VOLTAGE VACUUM INTERRUPTER DESIGN Introduction The External Design Electrical Breakdown in Vacuum Internal Vacuum Interrupter Design X-Ray Emission Arc Initiation When Closing a Vacuum Interrupter References THE VACUUM ARC The Closed Contact The Formation of the Vacuum Arc during Contact Opening The Diffuse Vacuum Arc The Columnar Vacuum Arc The Transition Vacuum Arc The Interaction of the Vacuum Arc and a Transverse Magnetic Field The Vacuum Arc and an Axial Magnetic Field Overview References THE MATERIALS, THE DESIGN, AND THE MANUFACTURE OF THE VACUUM INTERRUPTER Introduction Vacuum Interrupter Contact Materials The Contact Structures for the Vacuum Interrupter Other Vacuum Interrupter Design Features Vacuum Interrupter Manufacture References VACUUM INTERRUPTER APPLICATION GENERAL ASPECTS OF VACUUM INTERRUPTER APPLICATION Introduction The Interruption of AC Circuits Interruption of AC Circuits When the Contacts Open Just before Current Zero Contact Welding References APPLICATION OF THE VACUUM INTERRUPTER FOR SWITCHING LOAD CURRENTS Introduction Load Current Switching Switching Inductive Circuits Vacuum Contactors Switching Capacitor Circuits Vacuum Interrupters for Circuit Switching, Circuit Isolation, and Circuit Grounding Summary References CIRCUIT PROTECTION, VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKERS, AND RECLOSERS Introduction Load Currents Short-Circuit Currents Late Breakdowns and Nonsustained Disruptive Discharges Vacuum Circuit Breaker Design Vacuum Circuit Breaker Testing and Certification Vacuum Circuit Breakers for Capacitor Switching, Cable and Line Switching, and Motor Switching Application of Vacuum Circuit Breakers Concluding Summary References AUTHOR INDEX SUBJECT INDEX

438 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It seems reasonable to conclude that responses to mechanical displacement of the skin are mediated by more than one receptor system, although direct evidence is still lacking.
Abstract: Vibrotactile thresholds were determined as a function of frequency, contactor configuration, and contactor area. It was found that contactor area is a more important stimulus parameter than the gradient or curvature of displacement. The absolute threshold for vibration seems to be independent of frequency when very small contactors are used and independent of area at low frequencies. For higher values of these parameters, it strongly depends on both. It seems reasonable to conclude that responses to mechanical displacement of the skin are mediated by more than one receptor system, although direct evidence is still lacking.

369 citations


Patent
18 Sep 1978
Abstract: The invention relates to a wastewater treatment process. In one embodiment, introducing raw sewage in a biological contactor 22 having a series of discs 24 mounted on a common shaft 25. To the wastewater stream an adsorbent capable of adsorbing impurities from the liquid. This adsorbent is, for example activated carbon is added at 26. The addition of this adsorbent improves the operating characteristics of the biological contactor and the solids were removed accumulated on the contactor at a rate equivalent to the rate at which these solids accumulate.

352 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
202186
2020346
2019552
2018742
2017868