Topic

# Context-sensitive grammar

About: Context-sensitive grammar is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1938 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 45911 citation(s). The topic is also known as: CSG.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

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TL;DR: The use of augmented transition network grammars for the analysis of natural language sentences is described, and structure-building actions associated with the arcs of the grammar network allow for a powerful selectivity which can rule out meaningless analyses and take advantage of semantic information to guide the parsing.

Abstract: The use of augmented transition network grammars for the analysis of natural language sentences is described Structure-building actions associated with the arcs of the grammar network allow for the reordering, restructuring, and copying of constituents necessary to produce deep-structure representations of the type normally obtained from a transformational analysis, and conditions on the arcs allow for a powerful selectivity which can rule out meaningless analyses and take advantage of semantic information to guide the parsing The advantages of this model for natural language analysis are discussed in detail and illustrated by examples An implementation of an experimental parsing system for transition network grammars is briefly described

1,353 citations

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TL;DR: A sequence of restrictions that limit grammars first to Turing machines, then to two types of system from which a phrase structure description of the generated language can be drawn, and finally to finite state Markov sources are shown to be increasingly heavy.

Abstract: A grammar can be regarded as a device that enumerates the sentences of a language. We study a sequence of restrictions that limit grammars first to Turing machines, then to two types of system from which a phrase structure description of the generated language can be drawn, and finally to finite state Markov sources (finite automata). These restrictions are shown to be increasingly heavy in the sense that the languages that can be generated by grammars meeting a given restriction constitute a proper subset of those that can be generated by grammars meeting the preceding restriction. Various formulations of phrase structure description are considered, and the source of their excess generative power over finite state sources is investigated in greater detail.

1,254 citations

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01 Jan 1989

TL;DR: This book presents 25 different regulating mechanisms by definitions, examples and basic facts, especially concerning hierarchies, as well as selective substitution grammars as one common generalization.

Abstract: It is well-known that context-free grammars cannot cover all aspects of natural languages, progamming languages and other related fields. Therefore a lot of mechanisms have been introduced which control the application of context-free rules. This book presents 25 different regulating mechanisms by definitions, examples and basic facts, especially concerning hierarchies. Matrix, programmed, and random context grammars as typical representants are studied in more detail. Besides their algebraic and decidability properties a comparison is made with respect to syntactic complexity measures and pure versions. Further topics are combinations of some control mechanisms, regulated L systems, automata characterizations, Szilard languages, and grammar forms of regulated grammars as well as selective substitution grammars as one common generalization.

838 citations

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TL;DR: This article developed a formal grammatical system called a link grammar and showed how English grammar can be encoded in such a system, and gave algorithms for efficiently parsing with a link grammars.

Abstract: We develop a formal grammatical system called a link grammar, show how English grammar can be encoded in such a system, and give algorithms for efficiently parsing with a link grammar. Although the expressive power of link grammars is equivalent to that of context free grammars, encoding natural language grammars appears to be much easier with the new system. We have written a program for general link parsing and written a link grammar for the English language. The performance of this preliminary system -- both in the breadth of English phenomena that it captures and in the computational resources used -- indicates that the approach may have practical uses as well as linguistic significance. Our program is written in C and may be obtained through the internet.

828 citations

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TL;DR: LR(k) grammars are defined, which are perhaps the most general ones of this type, and they provide the basis for understanding all of the special tricks which have been used in the construction of parsing algorithms for languages with simple structure, e.g. algebraic languages.

Abstract: There has been much recent interest in languages whose grammar is sufficiently simple that an efficient left-to-right parsing algorithm can be mechanically produced from the grammar. In this paper, we define LR(k) grammars, which are perhaps the most general ones of this type, and they provide the basis for understanding all of the special tricks which have been used in the construction of parsing algorithms for languages with simple structure, e.g. algebraic languages. We give algorithms for deciding if a given grammar satisfies the LR(k) condition, for given k, and also give methods for generating recognizes for LR(k) grammars. It is shown that the problem of whether or not a grammar is LR(k) for some k is undecidable, and the paper concludes by establishing various connections between LR(k) grammars and deterministic languages. In particular, the LR(k) condition is a natural analogue, for grammars, of the deterministic condition, for languages.

794 citations