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Continuous wave

About: Continuous wave is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8076 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 118747 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
11 Jan 2002-Science
TL;DR: The results demonstrate the potential of quantum cascade lasers as continuous wave mid-infrared light sources for high-resolution spectroscopy, chemical sensing applications, and free-space optical communication systems.
Abstract: Continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers is reported up to a temperature of 312 kelvin. The devices were fabricated as buried heterostructure lasers with high-reflection coatings on both laser facets, resulting in continuous wave operation with optical output power ranging from 17 milliwatts at 292 kelvin to 3 milliwatts at 312 kelvin, at an emission wavelength of 9.1 micrometers. The results demonstrate the potential of quantum cascade lasers as continuous wave mid-infrared light sources for high-resolution spectroscopy, chemical sensing applications, and free-space optical communication systems.

804 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Data are presented characterizing a new process for fabrication of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers based on the selective conversion of high Al composition epitaxial AlGaAs to a stable native oxide using ‘‘wet oxidation.’’ The native oxide is used to form a ring contact to the laser active region. The resulting laser active regions have dimensions of 8, 4, and 2 μm. The lowest threshold laser is achieved with the 8‐μm active region, with a minimum threshold current of 225‐μA continuous wave at room temperature.

579 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Continuous‐wave (cw) operation of InGaN multi‐quantum‐well structure laser diodes (LDs) was demonstrated at room temperature (RT). The threshold current and voltage of the LD were 130 mA and 8 V, respectively. The threshold carrier density was 9 kA/cm2. The lifetime of the LDs under RT cw operation was 1 s due to large heat generation. Mode hopping of the emission wavelength of the LDs was observed. The average wavelength drift due to temperature increase was 0.066 nm/K between 20 and 70 °C, because of the temperature dependence of the gain profile due to band‐gap narrowing of the InGaN active layer.

541 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We report stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy with continuous wave (CW) laser beams. Lateral fluorescence confinement from the scanning focal spot delivered a resolution of 29-60 nm in the focal plane, corresponding to a 5-8-fold improvement over the diffraction barrier. Axial spot confinement increased the axial resolution by 3.5-fold. We observed three-dimensional (3D) subdiffraction resolution in 3D image stacks. Viable for fluorophores with low triplet yield, the use of CW light sources greatly simplifies the implementation of this concept of far-field fluorescence nanoscopy.

465 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The demonstration of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser that operates up to 164 K in pulsed mode and 117 K in continuous-wave mode at approximately 3.0 THz is reported.
Abstract: We report the demonstration of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser that operates up to 164 K in pulsed mode and 117 K in continuous-wave mode at approximately 3.0 THz. The active region was based on a resonant-phonon depopulation scheme and a metal-metal waveguide was used for modal confinement. Copper to copper thermocompression wafer bonding was used to fabricate the waveguide, which displayed improved thermal properties compared to a previous indium-gold bonding method.

433 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20225
2021220
2020276
2019341
2018380
2017299