Topic

# Convergence (routing)

About: Convergence (routing) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 23702 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 415745 citation(s).

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01 Jan 2000TL;DR: Two different multiplicative algorithms for non-negative matrix factorization are analyzed and one algorithm can be shown to minimize the conventional least squares error while the other minimizes the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence.

Abstract: Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has previously been shown to be a useful decomposition for multivariate data. Two different multiplicative algorithms for NMF are analyzed. They differ only slightly in the multiplicative factor used in the update rules. One algorithm can be shown to minimize the conventional least squares error while the other minimizes the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence. The monotonic convergence of both algorithms can be proven using an auxiliary function analogous to that used for proving convergence of the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The algorithms can also be interpreted as diagonally rescaled gradient descent, where the rescaling factor is optimally chosen to ensure convergence.

6,919 citations

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TL;DR: This paper presents convergence properties of the Nelder--Mead algorithm applied to strictly convex functions in dimensions 1 and 2, and proves convergence to a minimizer for dimension 1, and various limited convergence results for dimension 2.

Abstract: The Nelder--Mead simplex algorithm, first published in 1965, is an enormously popular direct search method for multidimensional unconstrained minimization. Despite its widespread use, essentially no theoretical results have been proved explicitly for the Nelder--Mead algorithm. This paper presents convergence properties of the Nelder--Mead algorithm applied to strictly convex functions in dimensions 1 and 2. We prove convergence to a minimizer for dimension 1, and various limited convergence results for dimension 2. A counterexample of McKinnon gives a family of strictly convex functions in two dimensions and a set of initial conditions for which the Nelder--Mead algorithm converges to a nonminimizer. It is not yet known whether the Nelder--Mead method can be proved to converge to a minimizer for a more specialized class of convex functions in two dimensions.

6,497 citations

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TL;DR: This work generalizes the method proposed by Gelman and Rubin (1992a) for monitoring the convergence of iterative simulations by comparing between and within variances of multiple chains, in order to obtain a family of tests for convergence.

Abstract: We generalize the method proposed by Gelman and Rubin (1992a) for monitoring the convergence of iterative simulations by comparing between and within variances of multiple chains, in order to obtain a family of tests for convergence. We review methods of inference from simulations in order to develop convergence-monitoring summaries that are relevant for the purposes for which the simulations are used. We recommend applying a battery of tests for mixing based on the comparison of inferences from individual sequences and from the mixture of sequences. Finally, we discuss multivariate analogues, for assessing convergence of several parameters simultaneously.

4,918 citations

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01 Jan 2011

Abstract: The author's preface gives an outline: "This book is about weakconvergence methods in metric spaces, with applications sufficient to show their power and utility. The Introduction motivates the definitions and indicates how the theory will yield solutions to problems arising outside it. Chapter 1 sets out the basic general theorems, which are then specialized in Chapter 2 to the space C[0, l ] of continuous functions on the unit interval and in Chapter 3 to the space D [0, 1 ] of functions with discontinuities of the first kind. The results of the first three chapters are used in Chapter 4 to derive a variety of limit theorems for dependent sequences of random variables. " The book develops and expands on Donsker's 1951 and 1952 papers on the invariance principle and empirical distributions. The basic random variables remain real-valued although, of course, measures on C[0, l ] and D[0, l ] are vitally used. Within this framework, there are various possibilities for a different and apparently better treatment of the material. More of the general theory of weak convergence of probabilities on separable metric spaces would be useful. Metrizability of the convergence is not brought up until late in the Appendix. The close relation of the Prokhorov metric and a metric for convergence in probability is (hence) not mentioned (see V. Strassen, Ann. Math. Statist. 36 (1965), 423-439; the reviewer, ibid. 39 (1968), 1563-1572). This relation would illuminate and organize such results as Theorems 4.1, 4.2 and 4.4 which give isolated, ad hoc connections between weak convergence of measures and nearness in probability. In the middle of p. 16, it should be noted that C*(S) consists of signed measures which need only be finitely additive if 5 is not compact. On p. 239, where the author twice speaks of separable subsets having nonmeasurable cardinal, he means "discrete" rather than "separable." Theorem 1.4 is Ulam's theorem that a Borel probability on a complete separable metric space is tight. Theorem 1 of Appendix 3 weakens completeness to topological completeness. After mentioning that probabilities on the rationals are tight, the author says it is an

3,119 citations

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TL;DR: A novel fast algorithm for independent component analysis is introduced, which can be used for blind source separation and feature extraction, and the convergence speed is shown to be cubic.

Abstract: We introduce a novel fast algorithm for independent component analysis, which can be used for blind source separation and feature extraction. We show how a neural network learning rule can be transformed into a fixedpoint iteration, which provides an algorithm that is very simple, does not depend on any user-defined parameters, and is fast to converge to the most accurate solution allowed by the data. The algorithm finds, one at a time, all nongaussian independent components, regardless of their probability distributions. The computations can be performed in either batch mode or a semiadaptive manner. The convergence of the algorithm is rigorously proved, and the convergence speed is shown to be cubic. Some comparisons to gradient-based algorithms are made, showing that the new algorithm is usually 10 to 100 times faster, sometimes giving the solution in just a few iterations.

3,094 citations