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COPD

About: COPD is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 32358 publications have been published within this topic receiving 965341 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The BODE index, a simple multidimensional grading system, is better than the FEV1 at predicting the risk of death from any cause and from respiratory causes among patients with COPD.
Abstract: background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an incompletely reversible limitation in airflow. A physiological variable — the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) — is often used to grade the severity of COPD. However, patients with COPD have systemic manifestations that are not reflected by the FEV 1 . We hypothesized that a multidimensional grading system that assessed the respiratory and systemic expressions of COPD would better categorize and predict outcome in these patients. methods We first evaluated 207 patients and found that four factors predicted the risk of death in this cohort: the body-mass index (B), the degree of airflow obstruction (O) and dyspnea (D), and exercise capacity (E), measured by the six-minute–walk test. We used these variables to construct the BODE index, a multidimensional 10-point scale in which higher scores indicate a higher risk of death. We then prospectively validated the index in a cohort of 625 patients, with death from any cause and from respiratory causes as the outcome variables. results There were 25 deaths among the first 207 patients and 162 deaths (26 percent) in the validation cohort. Sixty-one percent of the deaths in the validation cohort were due to respiratory insufficiency, 14 percent to myocardial infarction, 12 percent to lung cancer, and 13 percent to other causes. Patients with higher BODE scores were at higher risk for death; the hazard ratio for death from any cause per one-point increase in the BODE score was 1.34 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.42; P<0.001), and the hazard ratio for death from respiratory causes was 1.62 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.48 to 1.77; P<0.001). The C statistic for the ability of the BODE index to predict the risk of death was larger than that for the FEV 1 (0.74 vs. 0.65).

3,688 citations

01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: Values below this suggest that further studies, such as split func-tion assessment by quantitative lung scintigraphy and exercisetesting, are warranted, and that all elective surgery Prophylaxis against deep venous throm-bosis should be given before most procedures that will require postoperative bed rest or significantly reduce mobility.
Abstract: SUMMARY OF APPROACH The approach to surgery in the patient with COPD is summa-rized below. Surgery Definitely indicated Lung resection. Pulmonary function studies should be performedbefore lung resection. Simple spirometry has the greatest utilityin documenting physiologic operability. FEV, > 2 L in an adultman or > 60% of predicted is acceptable for pneumonectomy.Values below this suggest that further studies, such as split func-tion assessment by quantitative lung scintigraphy and exercisetesting, are warranted.FEV, predicted after lung resection to be less than 40 to 50%of normal for the patient’s sex, age, and height suggests highermorbidity and mortality. An exercise 90, of less than 10 to 15ml/min per kg of body weight is associated with higher mor-bidity and mortality after lung resection.All elective surgery Prophylaxis against deep venous throm-bosis should be given before most procedures that will requirepostoperative bed rest or significantly reduce mobility. Heparinin low doses seems well accepted for most procedures. Externalpneumatic compression of the lower legs can be used when anti-coagulants are contraindicated.

3,498 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Progression of COPD is associated with the accumulation of inflammatory mucous exudates in the lumen and infiltration of the wall by innate and adaptive inflammatory immune cells that form lymphoid follicles, coupled to a repair or remodeling process that thickens the walls of these airways.
Abstract: Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem associated with long-term exposure to toxic gases and particles. We examined the evolution of the pathological effects of airway obstruction in patients with COPD. Methods The small airways were assessed in surgically resected lung tissue from 159 patients — 39 with stage 0 (at risk), 39 with stage 1, 22 with stage 2, 16 with stage 3, and 43 with stage 4 (very severe) COPD, according to the classification of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Results The progression of COPD was strongly associated with an increase in the volume of tissue in the wall (P<0.001) and the accumulation of inflammatory mucous exudates in the lumen (P<0.001) of the small airways. The percentage of the airways that contained polymorphonuclear neutrophils (P<0.001), macrophages (P<0.001), CD4 cells (P=0.02), CD8 cells (P=0.038), B cells (P<0.001), and lymphoid aggregates containing follicles (P=0.003) and the abs...

3,401 citations

Book
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: The most important bacterial causes of exacerbations of COPD are nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae.
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common problem in the elderly. The disease is characterised by intermittent worsening of symptoms and these episodes are called acute exacerbations. The best estimate, based on several lines of evidence, is that approximately half of all exacerbations are caused by bacteria. These lines of evidence include studies of lower respiratory tract bacteriology during exacerbations, correlation of airways’ inflammation with results of sputum cultures during exacerbations, analysis of immune responses to bacterial pathogens, and the observation in randomised, prospective, placebo-controlled trials that antibacterial therapy is of benefit. The most important bacterial causes of exacerbations of COPD are nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae.

3,181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Feb 2020-Allergy
TL;DR: This work aims to investigate the clinical characteristic and allergy status of patients infected with SARS‐CoV‐2 and its spread around the world.
Abstract: Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been widely spread. We aim to investigate the clinical characteristic and allergy status of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods Electronic medical records including demographics, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory data, and radiological materials of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with confirmed result of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, were extracted and analyzed. Results An approximately 1:1 ratio of male (50.7%) and female COVID-19 patients was found, with an overall median age of 57.0 years. All patients were community-acquired cases. Fever (91.7%), cough (75.0%), fatigue (75.0%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (39.6%) were the most common clinical manifestations, whereas hypertension (30.0%) and diabetes mellitus (12.1%) were the most common comorbidities. Drug hypersensitivity (11.4%) and urticaria (1.4%) were self-reported by several patients. Asthma or other allergic diseases were not reported by any of the patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 1.4%) patients and current smokers (1.4%) were rare. Bilateral ground-glass or patchy opacity (89.6%) was the most common sign of radiological finding. Lymphopenia (75.4%) and eosinopenia (52.9%) were observed in most patients. Blood eosinophil counts correlate positively with lymphocyte counts in severe (r = .486, P Conclusion Detailed clinical investigation of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 cases suggests eosinopenia together with lymphopenia may be a potential indicator for diagnosis. Allergic diseases, asthma, and COPD are not risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Older age, high number of comorbidities, and more prominent laboratory abnormalities were associated with severe patients.

2,999 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20243
20232,441
20225,630
20211,969
20202,064
20191,984