About: Cormocephalus is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 26 publications have been published within this topic receiving 292 citations.
TL;DR: It is conclusively demonstrated that at least one of the scolopendromorph species, Cormocephalus morsitans L., can close its spiracles fully, thus accounting for its DGCs, and suggested that several other tracheated arthropod taxa probably have this ability too.
Abstract: We have examined the gas-exchange characteristics of five southern African centipede species from three orders. Two scolopendromorph species exhibit discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGCs) identical to those recorded for several insect and chelicerate species. Another scolopendromorph and a lithobiomorph species exhibit weak periodic patterns, and a scutigermorph species shows continuous gas exchange. A crucial component for DGCs in tracheated arthropods is the presence of occludible spiracles. However, on the basis of studies of temperate centipedes, most recent invertebrate biology texts hold the view that centipedes, as a group, cannot close their spiracles. Using flow-through normoxic and normoxic‐anoxic‐normoxic respirometry and electron microscopy, we conclusively demonstrate that at least one of the scolopendromorph species, Cormocephalus morsitans L., can close its spiracles fully, thus accounting for its DGCs. Homologies in spiracular structure and DGCs suggest that several other tracheated arthropod taxa probably have this ability too and that DGCs have evolved convergently at least four times in the Arthropoda. Spiracular closure and discontinuous gasexchange cycles are probably more widespread in arthropods than has previously been suspected.
TL;DR: Phylogenetic analyses corroborated the monophyly of most families and tribes but suggested that several species-rich, cosmopolitan genera in traditional and current classifications are polyphyletic.
Abstract: Previous phylogenetic analyses of the centipede order Scolopendromorpha indicated a fundamental division into blind and ocellate clades. These analyses corroborated the monophyly of most families and tribes but suggested that several species-rich, cosmopolitan genera in traditional and current classifications are polyphyletic. Denser taxon sampling is applied to a dataset of 122 morphological characters and sequences for four nuclear and mitochondrial loci. Phylogenetic analyses including 98 species and subspecies of Scolopendromorpha employ parsimony under dynamic and static homology schemes as well as maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference of multiple sequence alignments. The monotypic Australian genera Notiasemus and Kanparka nest within Cormocephalus and Scolopendra, respectively, and the New Caledonian Campylostigmus is likewise a clade within Cormocephalus. New World Scolopendra are more closely related to Hemiscolopendra and Arthrorhabdus than to Scolopendra s.s., which is instead closely allied to Asanada; the tribe Asanadini nests within Scolopendrini for molecular and combined datasets. The generic classification of Otostigmini has a poor fit to phylogenetic relationships, although nodal support within this tribe is weak. New synonymies are proposed for Ectonocryptopinae Shelley & Mercurio, 2005 (= Newportiinae Pocock, 1896), Asanadini Verhoeff, 1907 (= Scolopendrini Leach, 1814), and Kanparka Waldock & Edgecombe, 2012 (= Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758). Scolopendrid systematics largely depicts incongruence between phylogeny and classification rather than between morphology and molecules.
TL;DR: This work explores the utility of a limited sampling approach, wherein sampling is confined to one of the Gondwanan fragments (peninsular India), in identifying putative Gondwana elements and suggests at least four genera of Scolopendrid centipedes might have undergone diversification on the drifting peninsularIndia during the Late Cretaceous.
Abstract: Given that peninsular India was part of the Gondwanan super continent, part of its current biota has Gondwanan origin. To determine the Gondwanan component of the peninsular Indian biota, a large number of species spanning diverse taxonomic groups need to be sampled from multiple, if not all, of the former Gondwanan fragments. Such a large scale phylogenetic approach will be time consuming and resource intensive. Here, we explore the utility of a limited sampling approach, wherein sampling is confined to one of the Gondwanan fragments (peninsular India), in identifying putative Gondwanan elements. To this end, samples of Scolopendrid centipedes from Western Ghats region of peninsular India were subjected to molecular phylogenetic and dating analyses. The resulting phylogenetic tree supported monophyly of the family Scolopendridae which was in turn split into two clades constituting tribes Otostigmini and Scolopendrini-Asanadini. Bayesian divergence date estimates suggested that the earliest diversifications within various genera were between 86 and 73 mya, indicating that these genera might have Gondwanan origin. In particular, at least four genera of Scolopendrid centipedes, Scolopendra, Cormocephalus, Rhysida and Digitipes, might have undergone diversification on the drifting peninsular India during the Late Cretaceous. These putative Gondwanan taxa can be subjected to more extensive sampling to confirm their Gondwanan origin. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: New molecular and morphological data are applied to scolopendromorph phylogenetics, with a focus on the evolution of blindness, and a single most‐parsimonious cladogram selected after sensitivity analyses resolves Scolipendromorpha as monophyletic and divides it into a blind clade.
Abstract: Relative to its diversity (34 genera, 700 species), Scolopendromorpha has been undersampled in molecular phylogenetic analyses compared with the other chilopod orders. Previous analyses based on morphology have not resolved several key controversies in systematics and evolutionary morphology unambiguously. Here we apply new molecular and morphological data to scolopendromorph phylogenetics, with a focus on the evolution of blindness. The taxonomic sample includes 19 genera, many lacking previous molecular data, and diverse, cosmopolitan genera of Scolopendridae are sampled by multiple species. Phylogenetic analysis with Direct Optimization used 94 morphological characters and ca. 4.5 kb of sequence data from two nuclear (18S and 28S rRNA) and two mitochondrial (16S rRNA and COI) loci. A single most-parsimonious cladogram selected after sensitivity analyses resolves Scolopendromorpha as monophyletic, and divides it into a blind clade of three families (Plutoniumidae, Cryptopidae, Scolopocryptopidae) and its ocellate sister group, Scolopendridae. Some species-rich, cosmopolitan genera (Cormocephalus, Otostigmus, Scolopendra) in Scolopendridae are non-monophyletic, and in several instances (e.g. New and Old World Scolopendra) relationships are more congruent with geographical distributions than with traditional classifications. The tribe Asanadini is particularly subject to parameter-sensitivity, nesting in the combined analysis within Scolopendrini but as sister to all other Scolopendrinae for molecular data alone. The total-evidence tree unambiguously optimizes trunk segmentation: a 23-segmented trunk has a single origin in the blind clade. © The Willi Hennig Society 2011.
TL;DR: Seventeen Australian species are recognized in the large genus Cormocephalus: aurantiipes, esulcatus, hartmeyeri, inermis, michaelseni, novaehollandiae, rubriceps, and seven new species.
Abstract: Seventeen Australian species are recognized in the large genus Cormocephalus: aurantiipes, esulcatus, hartmeyeri, inermis, michaelseni, novaehollandiae, rubriceps. strigosus, turneri, wesfwoodi, and seven new species: bruchycerus, bungalbinensis, lissadellensis, monteithi, similis, spinosior, and west- angelusensis. All these species are described and keyed, and their distributions mapped.