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Coronal mass ejection

About: Coronal mass ejection is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 14386 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 404184 citation(s). The topic is also known as: CME.
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2012-Solar Physics
Abstract: The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) provides multiple simultaneous high-resolution full-disk images of the corona and transition region up to 0.5 R ⊙ above the solar limb with 1.5-arcsec spatial resolution and 12-second temporal resolution. The AIA consists of four telescopes that employ normal-incidence, multilayer-coated optics to provide narrow-band imaging of seven extreme ultraviolet (EUV) band passes centered on specific lines: Fe xviii (94 A), Fe viii, xxi (131 A), Fe ix (171 A), Fe xii, xxiv (193 A), Fe xiv (211 A), He ii (304 A), and Fe xvi (335 A). One telescope observes C iv (near 1600 A) and the nearby continuum (1700 A) and has a filter that observes in the visible to enable coalignment with images from other telescopes. The temperature diagnostics of the EUV emissions cover the range from 6×104 K to 2×107 K. The AIA was launched as a part of NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission on 11 February 2010. AIA will advance our understanding of the mechanisms of solar variability and of how the Sun’s energy is stored and released into the heliosphere and geospace.

3,749 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1995-Solar Physics
Abstract: The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) is a triple coronagraph being jointly developed for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission LASCO comprises three nested coronagraphs (C1, C2, and C3) that image the solar corona for 11 to 30 solar radii (C1: 11 to 3 solar radii, C2: 15 to 6 solar radii, and C3: 3 to 300 solar radii) The inner coronagraph (C1) is a newly developed mirror version of the classic Lyot coronagraph without an external occultor, while the middle coronagraph (C2) and the outer coronagraph (C3) are externally occulted instruments High resolution coronal spectroscopy from 11 to 3 R solar radii can be performed by using a Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is part of C1 High volume memories and a high speed microprocessor enable extensive onboard image processing Image compression by factors of 10 to 20 will result in the transmission of 10 to 20 full images per hour

2,273 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2012-Solar Physics
Abstract: The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument and investigation as a part of the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is designed to study convection-zone dynamics and the solar dynamo, the origin and evolution of sunspots, active regions, and complexes of activity, the sources and drivers of solar magnetic activity and disturbances, links between the internal processes and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere, and precursors of solar disturbances for space-weather forecasts. A brief overview of the instrument, investigation objectives, and standard data products is presented.

1,936 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) is a five telescope package, which has been developed for the Solar Terrestrial Relation Observatory (STEREO) mission by the Naval Research Laboratory (USA), the Lockheed Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (USA), the Goddard Space Flight Center (USA), the University of Birmingham (UK), the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (Germany), the Centre Spatiale de Leige (Belgium), the Institut d’Optique (France) and the Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale (France). SECCHI comprises five telescopes, which together image the solar corona from the solar disk to beyond 1 AU. These telescopes are: an extreme ultraviolet imager (EUVI: 1–1.7 R⊙), two traditional Lyot coronagraphs (COR1: 1.5–4 R⊙ and COR2: 2.5–15 R⊙) and two new designs of heliospheric imagers (HI-1: 15–84 R⊙ and HI-2: 66–318 R⊙). All the instruments use 2048×2048 pixel CCD arrays in a backside-in mode. The EUVI backside surface has been specially processed for EUV sensitivity, while the others have an anti-reflection coating applied. A multi-tasking operating system, running on a PowerPC CPU, receives commands from the spacecraft, controls the instrument operations, acquires the images and compresses them for downlink through the main science channel (at compression factors typically up to 20×) and also through a low bandwidth channel to be used for space weather forecasting (at compression factors up to 200×). An image compression factor of about 10× enable the collection of images at the rate of about one every 2–3 minutes. Identical instruments, except for different sizes of occulters, are included on the STEREO-A and STEREO-B spacecraft.

1,589 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We propose a new model for the initiation of a solar coronal mass ejection (CME). The model agrees with two properties of CMEs and eruptive flares that have proved to be very difficult to explain with previous models: (1) very low-lying magnetic field lines, down to the photospheric neutral line, can open toward infinity during an eruption; and (2) the eruption is driven solely by magnetic free energy stored in a closed, sheared arcade. Consequently, the magnetic energy of the closed state is well above that of the posteruption open state. The key new feature of our model is that CMEs occur in multipolar topologies in which reconnection between a sheared arcade and neighboring flux systems triggers the eruption. In this "magnetic breakout" model, reconnection removes the unsheared field above the low-lying, sheared core flux near the neutral line, thereby allowing this core flux to burst open. We present numerical simulations that demonstrate our model can account for the energy requirements for CMEs. We discuss the implication of the model for CME/flare prediction.

1,401 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Nat Gopalswamy

294 papers, 14.4K citations

Angelos Vourlidas

184 papers, 12.7K citations

J. T. Gosling

131 papers, 9.9K citations

Russell A. Howard

127 papers, 17.4K citations

Seiji Yashiro

112 papers, 7.8K citations