About: Cost effectiveness is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 69775 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1531477 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Nov 1994
TL;DR: Williamson as discussed by the authors combines institutional economics with aspects of contract law and organization theory to identify and explicate the key differences that distinguish three generic forms of economic organization-market, hybrid, and hierarchy.
Abstract: Oliver E. Williamson University of California, Berkeley This paper combines institutional economics with aspects of contract law and organization theory to identify and explicate the key differences that distinguish three generic forms of economic organization-market, hybrid, and hierarchy. The analysis shows that the three generic forms are distinguished by different coordinating and control mechanisms and by different abilities to adapt to disturbances. Also, each generic form is supported and defined by a distinctive type of contract law. The costeffective choice of organization form is shown to vary systematically with the attributes of transactions. The paper unifies two hitherto disjunct areas of institutional economics-the institutional environment and the institutions of governance-by treating the institutional environment as a locus of parameters, changes in which parameters bring about shifts in the comparative costs of governance. Changes in property rights, contract law, reputation effects, and uncertainty are investigated.'
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: 1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis as a Guide to Resource Allocation in Health: Roles and Limitations 2. Theoretical Foundations of Cost-effectiveness Analysis 3. Framing and Designing the Cost- Effectiveness Analysis 4. Identifying and Valuing Outcomes 5. Assessing the Effectiveness of Health Interventions
Abstract: 1 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis as a Guide to Resource Allocation in Health: Roles and Limitations 2 Theoretical Foundations of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 3 Framing and Designing the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 4 Identifying and Valuing Outcomes 5 Assessing the Effectiveness of Health Interventions 6 Estimating Costs in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 7 Time Preference 8 Reflecting Uncertainty in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 9 Reporting Cost-Effectiveness Studies and Results Appendix A: Summary of Recommendations for the Reference Case Appendix B: Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies to Prevent Neural Tube Defects Appendix C: The Cost-Effectiveness of Dietary and Pharmacologic Therapy for Cholesterol Reduction in Adults
09 Nov 2013-The Lancet
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) as discussed by the authors was used to estimate the burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs).
Abstract: Summary Background We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs). Methods For each of the 20 mental and substance use disorders included in GBD 2010, we systematically reviewed epidemiological data and used a Bayesian meta-regression tool, DisMod-MR, to model prevalence by age, sex, country, region, and year. We obtained disability weights from representative community surveys and an internet-based survey to calculate YLDs. We calculated premature mortality as YLLs from cause of death estimates for 1980–2010 for 20 age groups, both sexes, and 187 countries. We derived DALYs from the sum of YLDs and YLLs. We adjusted burden estimates for comorbidity and present them with 95% uncertainty intervals. Findings In 2010, mental and substance use disorders accounted for 183·9 million DALYs (95% UI 153·5 million–216·7 million), or 7·4% (6·2–8·6) of all DALYs worldwide. Such disorders accounted for 8·6 million YLLs (6·5 million–12·1 million; 0·5% [0·4–0·7] of all YLLs) and 175·3 million YLDs (144·5 million–207·8 million; 22·9% [18·6–27·2] of all YLDs). Mental and substance use disorders were the leading cause of YLDs worldwide. Depressive disorders accounted for 40·5% (31·7–49·2) of DALYs caused by mental and substance use disorders, with anxiety disorders accounting for 14·6% (11·2–18·4), illicit drug use disorders for 10·9% (8·9–13·2), alcohol use disorders for 9·6% (7·7–11·8), schizophrenia for 7·4% (5·0–9·8), bipolar disorder for 7·0% (4·4–10·3), pervasive developmental disorders for 4·2% (3·2–5·3), childhood behavioural disorders for 3·4% (2·2–4·7), and eating disorders for 1·2% (0·9–1·5). DALYs varied by age and sex, with the highest proportion of total DALYs occurring in people aged 10–29 years. The burden of mental and substance use disorders increased by 37·6% between 1990 and 2010, which for most disorders was driven by population growth and ageing. Interpretation Despite the apparently small contribution of YLLs—with deaths in people with mental disorders coded to the physical cause of death and suicide coded to the category of injuries under self-harm—our findings show the striking and growing challenge that these disorders pose for health systems in developed and developing regions. In view of the magnitude of their contribution, improvement in population health is only possible if countries make the prevention and treatment of mental and substance use disorders a public health priority. Funding Queensland Department of Health, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre-University of New South Wales, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, University of Toronto, Technische Universitat, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, and the US National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
01 Jul 2001-Annals of Medicine
TL;DR: EQ-5D, a generic measure of health status that provides a simple descriptive profile and a single index value that can be used in the clinical and economic evaluation of health care and in population health surveys, is being widely used by clinical researchers in a variety of clinical areas.
Abstract: Established in 1987, the EuroQol Group initially comprised a network of international, multilingual and multidisciplinary researchers from seven centres in Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the UK. Nowadays, the Group comprises researchers from Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Japan, New Zealand, Slovenia, Spain, the USA and Zimbabwe. The process of shared development and local experimentation resulted in EQ-5D, a generic measure of health status that provides a simple descriptive profile and a single index value that can be used in the clinical and economic evaluation of health care and in population health surveys. Currently, EQ-5D is being widely used in different countries by clinical researchers in a variety of clinical areas. EQ-5D is also being used by eight out of the first 10 of the top 50 pharmaceutical companies listed in the annual report of Pharma Business (November/December 1999). Furthermore, EQ-5D is one of the handful of measures recommended for use in cost-effectiveness analyses by the Washington Panel on Cost Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. EQ-5D has now been translated into most major languages with the EuroQol Group closely monitoring the process.
TL;DR: This guideline is pleased to have this guideline developed in conjunction with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and to have been selected from all 3 organizations to examine subject-specific data and write guidelines.
Abstract: It is important that the medical profession plays a significant role in critically evaluating the use of diagnostic procedures and therapies as they are introduced and tested in the detection, management, or prevention of disease states. Rigorous and expert analysis of the available data documenting absolute and relative benefits and risks of those procedures and therapies can produce helpful guidelines that improve the effectiveness of care, optimize patient outcomes, and favorably affect the overall cost of care by focusing resources on the most effective strategies. The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have jointly engaged in the production of such guidelines in the area of cardiovascular disease since 1980. The ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines, whose charge is to develop, update, or revise practice guidelines for important cardiovascular diseases and procedures, directs this effort. The Task Force is pleased to have this guideline developed in conjunction with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Writing committees are charged with the task of performing an assessment of the evidence and acting as an independent group of authors to develop or update written recommendations for clinical practice. Experts in the subject under consideration have been selected from all 3 organizations to examine subject-specific data and write guidelines. The process includes additional representatives from other medical practitioner and specialty groups when appropriate. Writing committees are specifically charged to perform a formal literature review, weigh the strength of evidence for or against a particular treatment or procedure, and include estimates of expected health outcomes where data exist. Patient-specific modifiers, comorbidities, and issues of patient preference that might influence the choice of particular tests or therapies are considered as well as frequency of follow-up and cost effectiveness. When available, information from studies on cost will be considered; however, review …
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