About: Coulomb explosion is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1517 publications have been published within this topic receiving 31235 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the conditions for solidification in a laboratory plasma are discussed and conditions for the formation of a coulomb lattice are given for small particles in plasmas.
Abstract: Small particles in plasmas can form a coulomb lattice. The conditions for solidification in a laboratory plasma are discussed.
TL;DR: In the case of laser-heated xenon clusters, it was shown that the explosion of these superheated clusters ejects ions with substantial kinetic energy up to 1 MeV, four orders of magnitude higher than that achieved in the Coulomb explosion of small molecules as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy to particle energy is of fundamental importance in many areas of physics A promising avenue for producing matter with unprecedented energy densities is by heating atomic clusters, an intermediate form of matter between molecules and solids1, with high-intensity, ultra-short light pulses2–4 Studies of noble-gas clusters heated with high-intensity (>1016Wcm–2) laser pulses indicate that a highly ionized, very high temperature micro-plasma is produced The explosion of these superheated clusters ejects ions with substantial kinetic energy3–5 Here we report the direct measurement of the ion energy distributions resulting from these explosions We find, in the case of laser-heated xenon clusters, that such explosions produce xenon ions with kinetic energies up to 1 MeV This energy is four orders of magnitude higher than that achieved in the Coulomb explosion of small molecules6, indicating a fundamental difference in the nature of intense laser–matter interactions between molecules and clusters Moreover, it demonstrates that access to an extremely high temperature state of matter is now possible with small-scale lasers
TL;DR: In this paper, an experimentalist's point of view of the dynamics of H-2+ in an intense laser field is presented, which is interpreted in terms of bond-softening, vibrational trapping (bond-hardening), below-threshold dissociation and laser-induced alignment of the molecular axis.
Abstract: In the past decade, the understanding of the dynamics of small molecules in intense laser fields has advanced enormously. At the same time, the technology of ultra-short pulsed lasers has equally progressed to such an extent that femtosecond lasers are now widely available. This review is written from an experimentalist's point of view and begins by discussing the value of this research and defining the meaning of the word 'intense'. It continues with describing the Ti: sapphire laser, including topics such as pulse compression, chirped pulse amplification, optical parametric amplification, laser-pulse diagnostics and the absolute phase. Further aspects include focusing, the focal volume effect and space charge. The discussion of physics begins with the Keldysh parameter and the three regimes of ionization, i.e. multi-photon, tunnelling and over-the-barrier. Direct-double ionization (non-sequential ionization), high-harmonic generation, above-threshold ionization and attosecond pulses are briefly mentioned. Subsequently, a theoretical calculation, which solves the time-dependent Schrodinger equation, is compared with an experimental result. The dynamics of H-2(+) in an intense laser field is interpreted in terms of bond-softening, vibrational trapping (bond-hardening), below-threshold dissociation and laser-induced alignment of the molecular axis. The final section discusses the modified Franck-Condon principle, enhanced ionization at critical distances and Coulomb explosion of diatomic and triatomic molecules.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview of key phenomena arising from laser-cluster interactions with focus on nonlinear optical excitations and discuss the underlying processes according to the current understanding.
Abstract: Laser excitation of nanometer-sized atomic and molecular clusters offers various opportunities to explore and control ultrafast many-particle dynamics. Whereas weak laser fields allow the analysis of photoionization, excited-state relaxation, and structural modifications on these finite quantum systems, large-amplitude collective electron motion and Coulomb explosion can be induced with intense laser pulses. This review provides an overview of key phenomena arising from laser-cluster interactions with focus on nonlinear optical excitations and discusses the underlying processes according to the current understanding. A general survey covers basic cluster properties and excitation mechanisms relevant for laser-driven cluster dynamics. Then, after an excursion in theoretical and experimental methods, results for single-photon and multiphoton excitations are reviewed with emphasis on signatures from time- and angular-resolved photoemission. A key issue of this review is the broad spectrum of phenomena arising from clusters exposed to strong fields, where the interaction with the laser pulse creates short-lived and dense nanoplasmas. The implications for technical developments such as the controlled generation of ion, electron, and radiation pulses will be addressed along with corresponding examples. Finally, future prospects of laser-cluster research as well as experimental and theoretical challenges are discussed.
TL;DR: Initial results from a study of the interaction of soft X-ray radiation, generated by a free-electron laser, with Xe atoms and clusters are presented, finding that, whereasXe atoms become only singly ionized by the absorption of single photons, absorption in clusters is strongly enhanced.
Abstract: Intense radiation from lasers has opened up many new areas of research in physics and chemistry, and has revolutionized optical technology. So far, most work in the field of nonlinear processes has been restricted to infrared, visible and ultraviolet light, although progress in the development of X-ray lasers has been made recently. With the advent of a free-electron laser in the soft-X-ray regime below 100 nm wavelength, a new light source is now available for experiments with intense, short-wavelength radiation that could be used to obtain deeper insights into the structure of matter. Other free-electron sources with even shorter wavelengths are planned for the future. Here we present initial results from a study of the interaction of soft X-ray radiation, generated by a free-electron laser, with Xe atoms and clusters. We find that, whereas Xe atoms become only singly ionized by the absorption of single photons, absorption in clusters is strongly enhanced. On average, each atom in large clusters absorbs up to 400 eV, corresponding to 30 photons. We suggest that the clusters are heated up and electrons are emitted after acquiring sufficient energy. The clusters finally disintegrate completely by Coulomb explosion.