Topic

# Coupling constant

About: Coupling constant is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16911 publications have been published within this topic receiving 401773 citations.

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CERN

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that only planar diagrams with the quarks at the edges dominate; the topological structure of the perturbation series in 1/N is identical to that of the dual models, such that the number 1/n corresponds to the dual coupling constant.

Abstract: A gauge theory with colour gauge group U( N ) and quarks having a colour index running from one to N is considered in the limit N → ∞, g 2 N fixed. It is shown that only planar diagrams with the quarks at the edges dominate; the topological structure of the perturbation series in 1/ N is identical to that of the dual models, such that the number 1/ N corresponds to the dual coupling constant. For hadrons N is probably equal to three. A mathematical framework is proposed to link these concepts of planar diagrams with the functional integrals of Gervais, Sakita and Mandelstam for the dual string.

4,271 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the optimum integer n is approximately the lowest order of the Gorling-Levy perturbation theory which provides a realistic description of the coupling-constant dependence Exc,λ in the range 0≤λ≤1, whence n≊4 for atomization energies of typical molecules.

Abstract: Density functional approximations for the exchange‐correlation energy EDFAxc of an electronic system are often improved by admixing some exact exchange Ex: Exc≊EDFAxc+(1/n)(Ex−EDFAx). This procedure is justified when the error in EDFAxc arises from the λ=0 or exchange end of the coupling‐constant integral ∫10 dλ EDFAxc,λ. We argue that the optimum integer n is approximately the lowest order of Gorling–Levy perturbation theory which provides a realistic description of the coupling‐constant dependence Exc,λ in the range 0≤λ≤1, whence n≊4 for atomization energies of typical molecules. We also propose a continuous generalization of n as an index of correlation strength, and a possible mixing of second‐order perturbation theory with the generalized gradient approximation.

3,959 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the superconducting transition temperature is calculated as a function of the electron-phonon and electron-electron coupling constants within the framework of strong coupling theory.

Abstract: The superconducting transition temperature is calculated as a function of the electron-phonon and electron-electron coupling constants within the framework of the strong-coupling theory. Using this theoretical result, we find empirical values of the coupling constants and the "band-structure" density of states for a number of metals and alloys. It is noted that the electron-phonon coupling constant depends primarily on the phonon frequencies rather than on the electronic properties of the metal. Finally, using these results, one can predict a maximum superconducting transition temperature.

3,570 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the low energy representation of several Green's functions and form factors and of the na scattering amplitude are calculated in terms of a few constants, which may be identified with the coupling constants of a unique effective low energy Lagrangian.

Abstract: * in terms of a few constants, which may be identified with the coupling constants of a unique effective low energy Lagrangian. The low energy representation of several Green’s functions and form factors and of the na scattering amplitude are then calculated. The values of the low energy coupling constants are extracted from available experimental data. The corrections of order Mj, to the xz scattering lengths and effective ranges turn out to be substantial and the improved low energy theorems agree very well with the measured phase shifts. The observed differences between the data and the uncorrected soft pion theorems may even be used to measure the scalar radius of the pion, which plays a central role in the low energy expansion. 0 1984 Academic Press, Inc.

3,062 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the possibility that radiative corrections may produce spontaneous symmetry breakdown in theories for which the semiclassical (tree) approximation does not indicate such breakdown, and they find that this theory more closely resembles the theory with an imaginary mass (the Abelian Higgs model) than one with a positive mass; spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, and the theory becomes a theory of a massive vector meson and a massive scalar meson.

Abstract: We investigate the possibility that radiative corrections may produce spontaneous symmetry breakdown in theories for which the semiclassical (tree) approximation does not indicate such breakdown. The simplest model in which this phenomenon occurs is the electrodynamics of massless scalar mesons. We find (for small coupling constants) that this theory more closely resembles the theory with an imaginary mass (the Abelian Higgs model) than one with a positive mass; spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, and the theory becomes a theory of a massive vector meson and a massive scalar meson. The scalar-to-vector mass ratio is computable as a power series in $e$, the electromagnetic coupling constant. We find, to lowest order, $\frac{{m}^{2}(S)}{{m}^{2}(V)}=(\frac{3}{2\ensuremath{\pi}})(\frac{{e}^{2}}{4\ensuremath{\pi}})$. We extend our analysis to non-Abelian gauge theories, and find qualitatively similar results. Our methods are also applicable to theories in which the tree approximation indicates the occurrence of spontaneous symmetry breakdown, but does not give complete information about its character. (This typically occurs when the scalar-meson part of the Lagrangian admits a greater symmetry group than the total Lagrangian.) We indicate how to use our methods in these cases.

2,999 citations