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Credit history

About: Credit history is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8869 publications have been published within this topic receiving 222195 citations.


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Posted ContentDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a model is developed to provide the first theoretical justification for true credit rationing in a loan market, where the amount of the loan and amount of collateral demanded affect the behavior and distribution of borrowers, and interest rates serve as screening devices for evaluating risk.
Abstract: According to basic economics, if demand exceeds supply, prices will rise, thus decreasing demand or increasing supply until demand and supply are in equilibrium; thus if prices do their job, rationing will not exist. However, credit rationing does exist. This paper demonstrates that even in equilibrium, credit rationing will exist in a loan market. Credit rationing is defined as occurring either (a) among loan applicants who appear identical, and some do and do not receive loans, even though the rejected applicants would pay higher interest rates; or (b) there are groups who, with a given credit supply, cannot obtain loans at any rate, even though with larger credit supply they would. A model is developed to provide the first theoretical justification for true credit rationing. The amount of the loan and the amount of collateral demanded affect the behavior and distribution of borrowers. Consequently, faced with increased credit demand, it may not be profitable to raise interest rates or collateral; instead banks deny loans to borrowers who are observationally indistinguishable from those receiving loans. It is not argued that credit rationing always occurs, but that it occurs under plausible assumptions about lender and borrower behavior. In the model, interest rates serve as screening devices for evaluating risk. Interest rates change the behavior (serve as incentive mechanism) for the borrower, increasing the relative attractiveness of riskier projects; banks ration credit, rather than increase rates when there is excess demand. Banks are shown not to increase collateral as a means of allocating credit; although collateral may have incentivizing effects, it may have adverse selection effects. Equity, nonlinear payment schedules, and contingency contracts may be introduced and yet there still may be rationing. The law of supply and demand is thus a result generated by specific assumptions and is model specific; credit rationing does exist. (TNM)

13,126 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors showed that the extent of competition in credit markets is important in determining the value of lending relationships and that creditors are more likely to finance credit constrained firms when credit markets are concentrated because it is easier for these creditors to internalize the benefits of assisting the firms.
Abstract: This paper provides a simple model showing that the extent of competition in credit markets is important in determining the value of lending relationships. Creditors are more likely to finance credit constrained firms when credit markets are concentrated because it is easier for these creditors to internalize the benefits of assisting the firms. The model has implications about the availability and the price of credit as firms age in different markets. The paper offers evidence for these implications from small business data. It concludes with conjectures on the costs and benefits of liberalizing financial markets, as well as the timing of such reforms.

3,259 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The authors examined the role of relationship lending in small firm finance and found that borrowers with longer banking relationships pay lower interest rates and are less likely to pledge collateral, consistent with theoretical arguments that relationship lending generates valuable information about borrower quality.
Abstract: This paper examines the role of relationship lending in small firm finance. We examine price and nonprice terms of bank lines of credit (L/C) extended to small firms. Our focus on bank L/Cs allows us toe examine a type of loan contract in which the bank-borrower relationship is likely to be an important mechanism for solving asymmetric information problems associated with financing small enterprises. We find that borrowers with longer banking relationships pay lower interest rates and are less likely to pledge collateral. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that relationship lending generates valuable information about borrower quality.

2,928 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate cross-country determinants of private credit, using new data on legal creditor rights and private and public credit registries in 129 countries, and find that both creditor protection through the legal system and information sharing institutions are associated with higher ratios of the private credit to GDP.

1,908 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: The authors developed a canonical framework to think about credit market frictions and aggregate economic activity in the context of the current crisis, and used the framework to address two issues in particular: first, how disruptions in financial intermediation can induce a crisis that affects real activity; and second, how various credit market interventions by the central bank and the Treasury of the type we have seen recently, might work to mitigate the crisis.
Abstract: We develop a canonical framework to think about credit market frictions and aggregate economic activity in the context of the current crisis. We use the framework to address two issues in particular: first, how disruptions in financial intermediation can induce a crisis that affects real activity; and second, how various credit market interventions by the central bank and the Treasury of the type we have seen recently, might work to mitigate the crisis. We make use of earlier literature to develop our framework and characterize how very recent literature is incorporating insights from the crisis.

1,900 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202372
202294
202150
202069
201971
201894