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# Critical exponent

About: Critical exponent is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16194 publications have been published within this topic receiving 383318 citations.

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TL;DR: The renormalization group theory has been applied to a variety of dynamic critical phenomena, such as the phase separation of a symmetric binary fluid as mentioned in this paper, and it has been shown that it can explain available experimental data at the critical point of pure fluids, and binary mixtures, and at many magnetic phase transitions.

Abstract: An introductory review of the central ideas in the modern theory of dynamic critical phenomena is followed by a more detailed account of recent developments in the field. The concepts of the conventional theory, mode-coupling, scaling, universality, and the renormalization group are introduced and are illustrated in the context of a simple example---the phase separation of a symmetric binary fluid. The renormalization group is then developed in some detail, and applied to a variety of systems. The main dynamic universality classes are identified and characterized. It is found that the mode-coupling and renormalization group theories successfully explain available experimental data at the critical point of pure fluids, and binary mixtures, and at many magnetic phase transitions, but that a number of discrepancies exist with data at the superfluid transition of $^{4}\mathrm{He}$.

4,980 citations

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TL;DR: It is argued that the superfluid-insulator transition in the presence of disorder may have an upper critical dimension dc which is infinite, but a perturbative renormalization-group calculation wherein the critical exponents have mean-field values for weak disorder above d=4 is also discussed.

Abstract: The phase diagrams and phase transitions of bosons with short-ranged repulsive interactions moving in periodic and/or random external potentials at zero temperature are investigated with emphasis on the superfluid-insulator transition induced by varying a parameter such as the density. Bosons in periodic potentials (e.g., on a lattice) at T=0 exhibit two types of phases: a superfluid phase and Mott insulating phases characterized by integer (or commensurate) boson densities, by the existence of a gap for particle-hole excitations, and by zero compressibility. Generically, the superfluid onset transition in d dimensions from a Mott insulator to superfluidity is ‘‘ideal,’’ or mean field in character, but at special multicritical points with particle-hole symmetry it is in the universality class of the (d+1)-dimensional XY model. In the presence of disorder, a third, ‘‘Bose glass’’ phase exists. This phase is insulating because of the localization effects of the randomness and analogous to the Fermi glass phase of interacting fermions in a strongly disordered potential. The Bose glass phase is characterized by a finite compressibility, no gap, but an infinite superfluid susceptibility. In the presence of disorder the transition to superfluidity is argued to occur only from the Bose glass phase, and never directly from the Mott insulator. This zero-temperature superfluid-insulator transition is studied via generalizations of the Josephson scaling relation for the superfluid density at the ordinary λ transition, highlighting the crucial role of quantum fluctuations. The transition is found to have a dynamic critical exponent z exactly equal to d and correlation length and order-parameter correlation exponents ν and η which satisfy the bounds ν≥2/d and η≤2-d, respectively. It is argued that the superfluid-insulator transition in the presence of disorder may have an upper critical dimension dc which is infinite, but a perturbative renormalization-group calculation wherein the critical exponents have mean-field values for weak disorder above d=4 is also discussed. Many of these conclusions are verified by explicit calculations on a model of one-dimensional bosons in the presence of both random and periodic potentials. The general results are applied to experiments on 4He absorbed in porous media such as Vycor. Some measurable properties of the superfluid onset are predicted exactly [e.g., the exponent x relating the λ transition temperature to the zero-temperature superfluid density is found to be d/2(d-1)], while stringent bounds are placed on others. Analysis of preliminary data is consistent with these predictions.

2,472 citations

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TL;DR: A new approach to Monte Carlo simulations is presented, giving a highly efficient method of simulation for large systems near criticality, despite the fact that the algorithm violates dynamic universality at second-order phase transitions.

Abstract: A new approach to Monte Carlo simulations is presented, giving a highly efficient method of simulation for large systems near criticality. The algorithm violates dynamic universality at second-order phase transitions, producing unusually small values of the dynamical critical exponent.

2,443 citations

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08 Mar 2018TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe how phase transitions occur in practice in practice, and describe the role of models in the process of phase transitions in the Ising Model and the Role of Models in Phase Transition.

Abstract: Introduction * Scaling and Dimensional Analysis * Power Laws in Statistical Physics * Some Important Questions * Historical Development * Exercises How Phase Transitions Occur In Principle * Review of Statistical Mechanics * The Thermodynamic Limit * Phase Boundaries and Phase Transitions * The Role of Models * The Ising Model * Analytic Properties of the Ising Model * Symmetry Properties of the Ising Model * Existence of Phase Transitions * Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking * Ergodicity Breaking * Fluids * Lattice Gases * Equivalence in Statistical Mechanics * Miscellaneous Remarks * Exercises How Phase Transitions Occur In Practice * Ad Hoc Solution Methods * The Transfer Matrix * Phase Transitions * Thermodynamic Properties * Spatial Correlations * Low Temperature Expansion * Mean Field Theory * Exercises Critical Phenomena in Fluids * Thermodynamics * Two-Phase Coexistence * Vicinity of the Critical Point * Van der Waals Equation * Spatial Correlations * Measurement of Critical Exponents * Exercises Landau Theory * Order Parameters * Common Features of Mean Field Theories * Phenomenological Landau Theory * Continuous Phase Transitions * Inhomogeneous Systems * Correlation Functions * Exercises Fluctuations and the Breakdown of Landau Theory * Breakdown of Microscopic Landau Theory * Breakdown of Phenomenological Landau Theory * The Gaussian Approximation * Critical Exponents * Exercises Scaling in Static, Dynamic and Non-Equilibrium Phenomena * The Static-Scaling Hypothesis * Other Forms of the Scaling Hypothesis * Dynamic Critical Phenomena * Scaling in the Approach to Equilibrium * Summary The Renormalisation Group * Block Spins * Basic Ideas of the Renormalisation Group * Fixed Points * Origin of Scaling * RG in Differential Form * RG for the Two Dimensional Ising Model * First Order Transitions and Non-Critical Properties * RG for the Correlation Function * Crossover Phenomena * Correlations to Scaling * Finite Size Scaling Anomalous Dimensions Far From Equilibrium * Introduction * Similarity Solutions * Anomalous Dimensions in Similarity Solutions * Renormalisation * Perturbation Theory for Barenblatts Equation * Fixed Points * Conclusion Continuous Symmetry * Correlation in the Ordered Phase * Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition Critical Phenomena Near Four Dimensions * Basic Idea of the Epsilon Expansion * RG for the Gaussian Model * RG Beyond the Gaussian Approximation * Feyman Diagrams * The RG Recursion Relations * Conclusion

2,245 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the Widom-Kadanoff scaling laws arise naturally from these differential equations if the coefficients in the equations are analytic at the critical point, and a generalization of the Kadanoff scale picture involving an "irrelevant" variable is considered; in this case the scaling laws result from the renormalization-group equations only if the solution of the equations goes asymptotically to a fixed point.

Abstract: The Kadanoff theory of scaling near the critical point for an Ising ferromagnet is cast in differential form. The resulting differential equations are an example of the differential equations of the renormalization group. It is shown that the Widom-Kadanoff scaling laws arise naturally from these differential equations if the coefficients in the equations are analytic at the critical point. A generalization of the Kadanoff scaling picture involving an "irrelevant" variable is considered; in this case the scaling laws result from the renormalization-group equations only if the solution of the equations goes asymptotically to a fixed point.

1,858 citations