About: Cropping system is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8049 publications have been published within this topic receiving 181326 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The results support the view that intraspecific crop diversification provides an ecological approach to disease control that can be highly effective over a large area and contribute to the sustainability of crop production.
Abstract: Crop heterogeneity is a possible solution to the vulnerability of monocultured crops to disease1,2,3. Both theory4 and observation2,3 indicate that genetic heterogeneity provides greater disease suppression when used over large areas, though experimental data are lacking. Here we report a unique cooperation among farmers, researchers and extension personnel in Yunnan Province, China—genetically diversified rice crops were planted in all the rice fields in five townships in 1998 and ten townships in 1999. Control plots of monocultured crops allowed us to calculate the effect of diversity on the severity of rice blast, the major disease of rice5. Disease-susceptible rice varieties planted in mixtures with resistant varieties had 89% greater yield and blast was 94% less severe than when they were grown in monoculture. The experiment was so successful that fungicidal sprays were no longer applied by the end of the two-year programme. Our results support the view that intraspecific crop diversification provides an ecological approach to disease control that can be highly effective over a large area and contribute to the sustainability of crop production.
TL;DR: CropSyst as discussed by the authors is a multi-year, multi-crop, daily time step simulation model developed to serve as an analytical tool to study the effect of climate, soils, and management on cropping systems productivity and the environment.
Abstract: CropSyst is a multi-year, multi-crop, daily time step cropping systems simulation model developed to serve as an analytical tool to study the effect of climate, soils, and management on cropping systems productivity and the environment. CropSyst simulates the soil water and nitrogen budgets, crop growth and development, crop yield, residue production and decomposition, soil erosion by water, and salinity. The development of CropSyst started in the early 1990s, evolving to a suite of programs including a cropping systems simulator (CropSyst), a weather generator (ClimGen), GIS-CropSyst cooperator program (ArcCS), a watershed model (CropSyst Watershed), and several miscellaneous utility programs. CropSyst and associated programs can be downloaded free of charge over the Internet. One key feature of CropSyst is the implementation of a generic crop simulator that enables the simulation of both yearly and multi-year crops and crop rotations via a single set of parameters. Simulations can last a fraction of a year to hundreds of years. The model has been evaluated in many world locations by comparing model estimates to data collected in field experiments. CropSyst has been applied to perform risk and economic analyses of scenarios involving different cropping systems, management options, and soil and climatic conditions. An extensive list of references related to model development, evaluation, and application is provided.
TL;DR: A review of the available science on the effects of N source, rate, timing, and placement, in combination with other cropping and tillage practices, on GHG emissions was conducted as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Fertilizer nitrogen (N) use is expanding globally to satisfy food, fiber, and fuel demands of a growing world population. Fertilizer consumers are being asked to improve N use efficiency through better management in their fields, to protect water resources and to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while sustaining soil resources and providing a healthy economy. A review of the available science on the effects of N source, rate, timing, and placement, in combination with other cropping and tillage practices, on GHG emissions was conducted. Implementation of intensive crop management practices, using principles of ecological intensification to enhance efficient and effective nutrient uptake while achieving high yields, was identified as a principal way to achieve reductions in GHG emissions while meeting production demands. Many studies identified through the review involved measurements of GHG emissions over several weeks to a few months, which greatly limit the ability to accurately determine system-level management effects on net global warming potential. The current science indicates: (1) appropriate fertilizer N use helps increase biomass production necessary to help restore and maintain soil organic carbon (SOC) levels; (2) best management practices (BMPs) for fertilizer N play a large role in minimizing residual soil nitrate, which helps lower the risk of increased nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions; (3) tillage practices that reduce soil disturbance and maintain crop residue on the soil surface can increase SOC levels, but usually only if crop productivity is maintained or increased; (4) differences among fertilizer N sources in N2O emissions depend on site- and weather-specific conditions; and (5) intensive crop management systems do not necessarily increase GHG emissions per unit of crop or food production; they can help spare natural areas from conversion to cropland and allow conversion of selected lands to forests for GHG mitigation, while supplying the world's need for food, fiber, and biofuel. Transfer of the information to fertilizer dealers, crop advisers, farmers, and agricultural and environmental authorities should lead to increased implementation of fertilizer BMPs, and help to reduce confusion over the role of fertilizer N on cropping system emissions of GHGs. Gaps in scientific understanding were identified and will require the collaborative attention of agronomists, soil scientists, ecologists, and environmental authorities in serving the immediate and long-term interests of the human population.
TL;DR: A number of technologies are available today to reduce nitrogen loss in agricultural cropping systems, such as adding rotational complexity to cropping system to improve N capture by crops, providing farmers with decision support tools for better predicting crop fertilizer N requirements, improving methods for optimizing fertilizer timing and placement, and developing watershed-level strategies to recapture N lost from fields as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Nitrogen (N) is central to living systems, and its addition to agricultural cropping systems is an essential facet of modern crop management and one of the major reasons that crop production has kept pace with human population growth. The benefits of N added to cropping systems come, however, at well-documented environmental costs: Increased coastal hypoxia, atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), reactive N gases in the troposphere, and N deposition onto forests and other natural areas are some of the consequences of our inability to keep fertilizer N from leaving cropped ecosystems via unmanaged pathways. The N cycle is complex, and solutions require a thorough understanding of both the biogeochemical pathways of N in agricultural systems and the consequences of different management practices. Despite the complexity of this challenge, however, a number of technologies are available today to reduce N loss. These include adding rotational complexity to cropping systems to improve N capture by crops, providing farmers with decision support tools for better predicting crop fertilizer N requirements, improving methods for optimizing fertilizer timing and placement, and developing watershed-level strategies to recapture N lost from fields. Solutions to the problem of agricultural N loss will require a portfolio approach in which different technologies are used in different combinations to address site-specific challenges. Solutions will also require incentives that promote their adoption.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the literature along with Michigan farmer experience to evaluate promising cover crop species for four niches: Northern winter (USDA Hardiness Zones 5-6), Northern summer (Zones 5 -6), Southern winter (Zone 7-8), and Southern summer (Zone 6 -8).
Abstract: The integration of cover crops into cropping systems brings costs and benefits, both internal and external to the farm. Benefits include promoting pest-suppression, soil and water quality, nutrient cycling efficiency, and cash crop productivity. Costs of adopting cover crops include increased direct costs, potentially reduced income if cover crops interfere with other attractive crops, slow soil warming, difficulties in predicting N mineralization, and production expenses. Cover crop benefits tend to be higher in irrigated systems. The literature is reviewed here along with Michigan farmer experience to evaluate promising cover crop species for four niches: Northern winter (USDA Hardiness Zones 5-6), Northern summer (Zones 5-6), Southern winter (Zones 7-8), and Southern summer (Zones 7-8). Warm season C 4 grasses are outstanding performers for summer niches (6-9 Mg ha -1 ), and rye (Secale cereale L.) is the most promising for winter niches (0.8-6 Mg ha -1 ) across all hardiness zones reviewed. Legume-cereal mixtures such as sudangrass (Sorghum sudanese L.)-cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) are the most effective means to produce substantial amounts (28 Mg ha -1 ) of mixed quality residues. Legume covers are slow growers and expensive to establish. At the same time, legumes fix N, produce high quality but limited amounts (0.5-4 Mg ha -1 ) of residues, and enhance beneficial insect habitat. Brassica species produce glucosinolate-containing residues (2-6 Mg ha -1 ) and suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-borne disease. Legume cover crops are the most reliable means to enhance cash crop yields compared with fallows or other cover crop species. However, farmer goals and circumstances must be considered. If soil pests are a major yield limiting factor in cash crop production, then use of brassica cover crops should be considered. Cereal cover crops produce the largest amount of biomass and should be considered when the goal is to rapidly build soil organic matter. Legume-cereal or brassica-cereal mixtures show promise over a wide range of niches.
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