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About: Crystal is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 90022 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1285207 citations. The topic is also known as: crystalline solid.

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TL;DR: By using micromechanical cleavage, a variety of 2D crystals including single layers of boron nitride, graphite, several dichalcogenides, and complex oxides are prepared and studied.
Abstract: We report free-standing atomic crystals that are strictly 2D and can be viewed as individual atomic planes pulled out of bulk crystals or as unrolled single-wall nanotubes. By using micromechanical cleavage, we have prepared and studied a variety of 2D crystals including single layers of boron nitride, graphite, several dichalcogenides, and complex oxides. These atomically thin sheets (essentially gigantic 2D molecules unprotected from the immediate environment) are stable under ambient conditions, exhibit high crystal quality, and are continuous on a macroscopic scale.

10,586 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An analysis of the solvent content of 116 different crystal forms of globular proteins found that in many cases this range will be sufficiently restrictive to enable the probable number of molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit to be determined directly from the molecular weight of the protein and the space group and unit cell dimensions of the crystal.

7,857 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the rate of growth of a surface containing dislocations is proportional to the square of the supersaturation for low values and to the first power for high values of the latter.
Abstract: Parts I and II deal with the theory of crystal growth, parts III and IV with the form (on the atomic scale) of a crystal surface in equilibrium with the vapour. In part I we calculate the rate of advance of monomolecular steps (i.e. the edges of incomplete monomolecular layers of the crystal) as a function of supersaturation in the vapour and the mean concentration of kinks in the steps. We show that in most cases of growth from the vapour the rate of advance of monomolecular steps will be independent of their crystallographic orientation, so that a growing closed step will be circular. We also find the rate of advance for parallel sequences of steps. In part II we find the resulting rate of growth and the steepness of the growth cones or growth pyramids when the persistence of steps is due to the presence of dislocations. The cases in which several or many dislocations are involved are analysed in some detail; it is shown that they will commonly differ little from the case of a single dislocation. The rate of growth of a surface containing dislocations is shown to be proportional to the square of the supersaturation for low values and to the first power for high values of the latter. Volmer & Schultze’s (1931) observations on the rate of growth of iodine crystals from the vapour can be explained in this way. The application of the same ideas to growth of crystals from solution is briefly discussed. Part III deals with the equilibrium structure of steps, especially the statistics of kinks in steps, as dependent on temperature, binding energy parameters, and crystallographic orientation. The shape and size of a two-dimensional nucleus (i.e. an ‘island* of new monolayer of crystal on a completed layer) in unstable equilibrium with a given supersaturation at a given temperature is obtained, whence a corrected activation energy for two-dimensional nucleation is evaluated. At moderately low supersaturations this is so large that a crystal would have no observable growth rate. For a crystal face containing two screw dislocations of opposite sense, joined by a step, the activation energy is still very large when their distance apart is less than the diameter of the corresponding critical nucleus; but for any greater separation it is zero. Part IV treats as a ‘co-operative phenomenon’ the temperature dependence of the structure of the surface of a perfect crystal, free from steps at absolute zero. It is shown that such a surface remains practically flat (save for single adsorbed molecules and vacant surface sites) until a transition temperature is reached, at which the roughness of the surface increases very rapidly (‘ surface melting ’). Assuming that the molecules in the surface are all in one or other of two levels, the results of Onsager (1944) for two-dimensional ferromagnets can be applied with little change. The transition temperature is of the order of, or higher than, the melting-point for crystal faces with nearest neighbour interactions in both directions (e.g. (100) faces of simple cubic or (111) or (100) faces of face-centred cubic crystals). When the interactions are of second nearest neighbour type in one direction (e.g. (110) faces of s.c. or f.c.c. crystals), the transition temperature is lower and corresponds to a surface melting of second nearest neighbour bonds. The error introduced by the assumed restriction to two available levels is investigated by a generalization of Bethe’s method (1935) to larger numbers of levels. This method gives an anomalous result for the two-level problem. The calculated transition temperature decreases substantially on going from two to three levels, but remains practically the same for larger numbers.

4,432 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the structure of the electronic energy bands and Brillouin zones for graphite was developed using the "tight binding" approximation, and it was found that graphite is a semi-conductor with zero activation energy, but they are created at higher temperatures by excitation to a band contiguous to the highest one which is normally filled.
Abstract: The structure of the electronic energy bands and Brillouin zones for graphite is developed using the "tight binding" approximation. Graphite is found to be a semi-conductor with zero activation energy, i.e., there are no free electrons at zero temperature, but they are created at higher temperatures by excitation to a band contiguous to the highest one which is normally filled. The electrical conductivity is treated with assumptions about the mean free path. It is found to be about 100 times as great parallel to as across crystal planes. A large and anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility is predicted for the conduction electrons; this is greatest for fields across the layers. The volume optical absorption is accounted for.

4,395 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A detailed comparison of single-crystal diffraction data collected with Ag Kα and Mo’™Kα microsources (IµS) indicates that the Ag”Kα data are better when absorption is significant.
Abstract: The quality of diffraction data obtained using silver and molybdenum microsources has been compared for six model compounds with a wide range of absorption factors. The experiments were performed on two 30 W air-cooled Incoatec IµS microfocus sources with multilayer optics mounted on a Bruker D8 goniometer with a SMART APEX II CCD detector. All data were analysed, processed and refined using standard Bruker software. The results show that Ag Kα radiation can be beneficial when heavy elements are involved. A numerical absorption correction based on the positions and indices of the crystal faces is shown to be of limited use for the highly focused microsource beams, presumably because the assumption that the crystal is completely bathed in a (top-hat profile) beam of uniform intensity is no longer valid. Fortunately the empirical corrections implemented in SADABS, although originally intended as a correction for absorption, also correct rather well for the variations in the effective volume of the crystal irradiated. In three of the cases studied (two Ag and one Mo) the final SHELXL R1 against all data after application of empirical corrections implemented in SADABS was below 1%. Since such corrections are designed to optimize the agreement of the intensities of equivalent reflections with different paths through the crystal but the same Bragg 2θ angles, a further correction is required for the 2θ dependence of the absorption. For this, SADABS uses the transmission factor of a spherical crystal with a user-defined value of μr (where μ is the linear absorption coefficient and r is the effective radius of the crystal); the best results are obtained when r is biased towards the smallest crystal dimension. The results presented here suggest that the IUCr publication requirement that a numerical absorption correction must be applied for strongly absorbing crystals is in need of revision.

2,639 citations

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