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Crystalline silicon

About: Crystalline silicon is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15199 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 248410 citation(s).
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01 Jan 2011-
Abstract: About the Editors. List of Contributors. Preface to the 2nd Edition. 1 Achievements and Challenges of Solar Electricity from Photovoltaics (Steven Hegedus and Antonio Luque). 1.1 The Big Picture. 1.2 What is Photovoltaics? 1.3 Photovoltaics Today. 1.4 The Great Challenge. 1.5 Trends in Technology. 1.6 Conclusions. 2 The Role of Policy in PV Industry Growth: Past, Present and Future (John Byrne and Lado Kurdgelashvili). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Policy Review of Selected Countries. 2.3 Policy Impact on PV Market Development. 2.4 Future PV Market Growth Scenarios. 2.5 Toward a Sustainable Future. 3 The Physics of the Solar Cell (Jeffery L. Gray). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Fundamental Properties of Semiconductors. 3.3 Solar Cell Fundamentals. 3.4 Additional Topics. 3.5 Summary. 4 Theoretical Limits of Photovoltaic Conversion and New-generation Solar Cells (Antonio Luque and Antonio Marti). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Thermodynamic Background. 4.3 Photovoltaic Converters. 4.4 The Technical Efficiency Limit for Solar Converters. 4.5 Very-high-efficiency Concepts. 4.6 Conclusions. 5 Solar Grade Silicon Feedstock (Bruno Ceccaroli and Otto Lohne). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Silicon. 5.3 Production of Silicon Metal/Metallurgical Grade Silicon. 5.4 Production of Polysilicon/Silicon of Electronic and Photovoltaic Grade. 5.5 Current Silicon Feedstock to Solar Cells. 5.6 Requirements of Silicon for Crystalline Solar Cells. 5.7 Routes to Solar Grade Silicon. 5.8 Conclusions. 6 Bulk Crystal Growth and Wafering for PV (Hugo Rodriguez, Ismael Guerrero, Wolfgang Koch, Arthur L. Endros, Dieter Franke, Christian Hassler, Juris P. Kalejs and H. J. Moller). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Bulk Monocrystalline Material. 6.3 Bulk Multicrystalline Silicon. 6.4 Wafering. 6.5 Silicon Ribbon and Foil Production. 6.6 Numerical Simulations of Crystal Growth Techniques. 6.7 Conclusions. 7 Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules (Ignacio Tobias, Carlos del Ca"nizo and Jesus Alonso). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Crystalline Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material. 7.3 Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. 7.4 Manufacturing Process. 7.5 Variations to the Basic Process. 7.6 Other Industrial Approaches. 7.7 Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules. 7.8 Electrical and Optical Performance of Modules. 7.9 Field Performance of Modules. 7.10 Conclusions. 8 High-efficiency III-V Multijunction Solar Cells (D. J. Friedman, J. M. Olson and Sarah Kurtz). 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Applications. 8.3 Physics of III-V Multijunction and Single-junction Solar Cells. 8.4 Cell Configuration. 8.5 Computation of Series-connected Device Performance. 8.6 Materials Issues Related to GaInP/GaAs/Ge Solar Cells. 8.7 Epilayer Characterization and Other Diagnostic Techniques. 8.8 Reliability and Degradation. 8.9 Future-generation Solar Cells. 8.10 Summary. 9 Space Solar Cells and Arrays (Sheila Bailey and Ryne Raffaelle). 9.1 The History of Space Solar Cells. 9.2 The Challenge for Space Solar Cells. 9.3 Silicon Solar Cells. 9.4 III-V Solar Cells. 9.5 Space Solar Arrays. 9.6 Future Cell and Array Possibilities. 9.7 Power System Figures of Merit. 9.8 Summary. 10 Photovoltaic Concentrators (Gabriel Sala and Ignacio Anton). 10.1 What is the Aim of Photovoltaic Concentration and What Does it Do? 10.2 Objectives, Limitations and Opportunities. 10.3 Typical Concentrators: an Attempt at Classification. 10.4 Concentration Optics: Thermodynamic Limits. 10.5 Factors of Merit for Concentrators in Relation to the Optics. 10.6 Photovoltaic Concentration Modules and Assemblies. 10.7 Tracking for Concentrator Systems. 10.8 Measurements of Cells, Modules and Photovoltaic Systems in Concentration. 10.9 Summary. 11 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells via High-temperature and Intermediate-temperature Approaches (Armin G. Aberle and Per I. Widenborg). 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Modelling. 11.4 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Intermediate-T Foreign Supporting Materials. 11.5 Conclusions. 12 Amorphous Silicon-based Solar Cells (Eric A. Schiff, Steven Hegedus and Xunming Deng). 12.1 Overview. 12.2 Atomic and Electronic Structure of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon. 12.3 Depositing Amorphous Silicon. 12.4 Understanding a-Si pin Cells. 12.5 Multijunction Solar Cells. 12.6 Module Manufacturing. 12.7 Conclusions and Future Projections. 13 Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells (William N. Shafarman, Susanne Siebentritt and Lars Stolt). 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Material Properties. 13.3 Deposition Methods. 13.4 Junction and Device Formation. 13.5 Device Operation. 13.6 Manufacturing Issues. 13.7 The Cu(InGa)Se2 Outlook. 14 Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells (Brian E. McCandless and James R. Sites). 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Historical Development. 14.3 CdTe Properties. 14.4 CdTe Film Deposition. 14.5 CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells. 14.6 CdTe Modules. 14.7 Future of CdTe-based Solar Cells. 15 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (Kohjiro Hara and Shogo Mori). 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 Operating Mechanism of DSSC. 15.3 Materials. 15.4 Performance of Highly Efficient DSSCs. 15.5 Electron-transfer Processes. 15.6 New Materials. 15.7 Stability. 15.8 Approach to Commercialization. 15.9 Summary and Prospects. 16 Sunlight Energy Conversion Via Organics (Sam-Shajing Sun and Hugh O'Neill). 16.1 Principles of Organic and Polymeric Photovoltaics. 16.2 Evolution and Types of Organic and Polymeric Solar Cells. 16.3 Organic and Polymeric Solar Cell Fabrication and Characterization. 16.4 Natural Photosynthetic Sunlight Energy Conversion Systems. 16.5 Artificial Photosynthetic Systems. 16.6 Artificial Reaction Centers. 16.7 Towards Device Architectures. 16.8 Summary and Future Perspectives. 17 Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics (Alan E. Delahoy and Sheyu Guo). 17.1 Introduction. 17.2 Survey of Materials. 17.3 Deposition Methods. 17.4 TCO Theory and Modeling: Electrical and Optical Properties and their Impact on Module Performance. 17.5 Principal Materials and Issues for Thin Film and Wafer-based PV. 17.6 Textured Films. 17.7 Measurements and Characterization Methods. 17.8 TCO Stability. 17.9 Recent Developments and Prospects. 18 Measurement and Characterization of Solar Cells and Modules (Keith Emery). 18.1 Introduction. 18.2 Rating PV Performance. 18.3 Current-Voltage Measurements. 18.4 Spectral Responsivity Measurements. 18.5 Module Qualification and Certification. 18.6 Summary. 19 PV Systems (Charles M. Whitaker, Timothy U. Townsend, Anat Razon, Raymond M. Hudson and Xavier Vallve). 19.1 Introduction: There is gold at the end of the rainbow. 19.2 System Types. 19.3 Exemplary PV Systems. 19.4 Ratings. 19.5 Key System Components. 19.6 System Design Considerations. 19.7 System Design. 19.8 Installation. 19.9 Operation and Maintenance/Monitoring. 19.10 Removal, Recycling and Remediation. 19.11 Examples. 20 Electrochemical Storage for Photovoltaics (Dirk Uwe Sauer). 20.1 Introduction. 20.2 General Concept of Electrochemical Batteries. 20.3 Typical Operation Conditions of Batteries in PV Applications. 20.4 Secondary Electrochemical Accumulators with Internal Storage. 20.5 Secondary Electrochemical Battery Systems with External Storage. 20.6 Investment and Lifetime Cost Considerations. 20.7 Conclusion. 21 Power Conditioning for Photovoltaic Power Systems (Heribert Schmidt, Bruno Burger and Jurgen Schmid). 21.1 Charge Controllers and Monitoring Systems for Batteries in PV Power Systems. 21.2 Inverters. 22 Energy Collected and Delivered by PV Modules (Eduardo Lorenzo). 22.1 Introduction. 22.2 Movement between Sun and Earth. 22.3 Solar Radiation Components. 22.4 Solar Radiation Data and Uncertainty. 22.5 Radiation on Inclined Surfaces. 22.6 Diurnal Variations of the Ambient Temperature. 22.7 Effects of the Angle of Incidence and of Dirt. 22.8 Some Calculation Tools. 22.9 Irradiation on Most Widely Studied Surfaces. 22.10 PV Generator Behaviour Under Real Operation Conditions. 22.11 Reliability and Sizing of Stand-alone PV Systems. 22.12 The Case of Solar Home Systems. 22.13 Energy Yield of Grid-connected PV Systems. 22.14 Conclusions. 23 PV in Architecture (Tjerk H. Reijenga and Henk F. Kaan). 23.1 Introduction. 23.2 PV in Architecture. 23.3 BIPV Basics. 23.4 Steps in the Design Process with PV. 23.5 Concluding Remarks. 24 Photovoltaics and Development (Jorge M. Huacuz, Jaime Agredano and Lalith Gunaratne). 24.1 Electricity and Development. 24.2 Breaking the Chains of Underdevelopment. 24.3 The PV Alternative. 24.4 Examples of PV Rural Electrification. 24.5 Toward a New Paradigm for Rural Electrification. References. Index.

2,747 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The structural changes in silicon electrochemically lithiated and delithiated at room temperature were studied by X-ray powder diffraction. Crystalline silicon becomes amorphous during lithium insertion, confirming previous studies. Highly lithiated amorphous silicon suddenly crystallizes at 50 mV to form a new lithium-silicon phase, identified as This phase is the fully lithiated phase for silicon at room temperature, not as is widely believed. Delithiation of the phase results in the formation of amorphous silicon. Cycling silicon anodes above 50 mV avoids the formation of crystallized phases completely and results in better cycling performance. © 2004 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

1,521 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The anisotropic etching behavior of single‐crystal silicon and the behavior of and in an ethylenediaminebased solution as well as in aqueous , , and were studied. The crystal planes bounding the etch front and their etch rates were determined as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and etchant composition. A correlation was found between the etch rates and their activation energies, with slowly etching crystal surfaces exhibiting higher activation energies and vice versa. For highly concentrated solutions, a decrease of the etch rate with the fourth power of the water concentration was observed. Based on these results, an electrochemical model is proposed, describing the anisotropic etching behavior of silicon in all alkaline solutions. In an oxidation step, four hydroxide ions react with one surface silicon atom, leading to the injection of four electrons into the conduction band. These electrons stay localized near the crystal surface due to the presence of a space charge layer. The reaction is accompanied by the breaking of the backbonds, which requires the thermal excitation of the respective surface state electrons into the conduction band. This step is considered to be rate limiting. In a reduction step, the injected electrons react with water molecules to form new hydroxide ions and hydrogen. It is assumed that these hydroxide ions generated at the silicon surface are consumed in the oxidation reaction rather than those from the bulk electrolyte, since the latter are kept away from the crystal by the repellent force of the negative surface charge. According to this model, monosilicic acid is formed as the primary dissolution product in all anisotropic silicon etchants. The anisotropic behavior is due to small differences of the energy levels of the backbond surface states as a function of the crystal orientation.

1,501 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Apr 2008-Science
TL;DR: A simple approach to high-performance, stretchable, and foldable integrated circuits that integrate inorganic electronic materials, including aligned arrays of nanoribbons of single crystalline silicon, with ultrathin plastic and elastomeric substrates.
Abstract: We have developed a simple approach to high-performance, stretchable, and foldable integrated circuits. The systems integrate inorganic electronic materials, including aligned arrays of nanoribbons of single crystalline silicon, with ultrathin plastic and elastomeric substrates. The designs combine multilayer neutral mechanical plane layouts and "wavy" structural configurations in silicon complementary logic gates, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers. We performed three-dimensional analytical and computational modeling of the mechanics and the electronic behaviors of these integrated circuits. Collectively, the results represent routes to devices, such as personal health monitors and other biomedical devices, that require extreme mechanical deformations during installation/use and electronic properties approaching those of conventional systems built on brittle semiconductor wafers.

1,439 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1991-Nature
Abstract: LIGHT-emitting devices based on silicon would find many applications in both VLSI and display technologies, but silicon normally emits only extremely weak infrared photoluminescence because of its relatively small and indirect band gap1. The recent demonstration of very efficient and multicolour (red, orange, yellow and green) visible light emission from highly porous, electrochemically etched silicon2,3 has therefore generated much interest. On the basis of strong but indirect evidence, this phenomenon was initially attributed to quantum size effects within crystalline material2, but this interpretation has subsequently been extensively debated. Here we report results from a transmission electron microscopy study which reveals the structure of the porous layers that emit red light under photoexcitation. Our results constitute direct evidence that highly porous silicon contains quantum-size crystalline structures responsible for the visible emission. We show that arrays of linear quantum wires are present and obtain images of individual quantum wires of width <3 nm.

1,247 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

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