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Crystallinity

About: Crystallinity is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 31803 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 730630 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Crystallinity.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An empirical method for determining the crystallinity of native cellulose was studied with an x-ray diffractometer using the focusing and transmission techniques. The influence of fluctuations in the primary radiation and in the counting and recording processes have been determined. The intensity of the 002 interference and the amor phous scatter at 2θ = 18° was measured. The percent crystalline material in the total cellulose was expressed by an x-ray "crystallinity index." This was done for cotton cellulose decrystallized with aqueous solutions containing from 70% to nominally 100% ethylamine. The x-ray "crystallinity index" was correlated with acid hydrolysis crys tallinity, moisture regain, density, leveling-off degree of polymerization values, and infrared absorbance values for each sample. The results indicate that the crystallinity index is a time-saving empirical measure of relative crystallinity. The precision of the crystallinity index in terms of the several crystallinity criteria is given. Bas...

5,009 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: EDS results confirmed a systematic increase of Eu content in the as-prepared samples with the increase of nominal europiumcontent in the reaction solution, and crystallinity and crystallite size of the titania particles decreased gradually.
Abstract: Uniform, spherical-shaped TiO2:Eu nanoparticles with different doping concentrations have been synthesized through controlled hydrolysis of titanium tetrabutoxide under appropriate pH and temperature in the presence of EuCl3·6H2O. Through air annealing at 500°C for 2 h, the amorphous, as-grown nanoparticles could be converted to a pure anatase phase. The morphology, structural, and optical properties of the annealed nanostructures were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy [EDS], and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. Optoelectronic behaviors of the nanostructures were studied using micro-Raman and photoluminescence [PL] spectroscopies at room temperature. EDS results confirmed a systematic increase of Eu content in the as-prepared samples with the increase of nominal europium content in the reaction solution. With the increasing dopant concentration, crystallinity and crystallite size of the titania particles decreased gradually. Incorporation of europium in the titania particles induced a structural deformation and a blueshift of their absorption edge. While the room-temperature PL emission of the as-grown samples is dominated by the 5D0 - 7Fj transition of Eu+3 ions, the emission intensity reduced drastically after thermal annealing due to outwards segregation of dopant ions.

2,213 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations and it was found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely used, and which involves measurement of just two heights in the X- Ray diffractogram, produced significantly higher crystallinity values than did the other methods.
Abstract: Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely used, and which involves measurement of just two heights in the X-ray diffractogram, produced significantly higher crystallinity values than did the other methods. Data in the literature for the cellulose preparation used (Avicel PH-101) support this observation. We believe that the alternative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR methods presented here, which consider the contributions from amorphous and crystalline cellulose to the entire XRD and NMR spectra, provide a more accurate measure of the crystallinity of cellulose. Although celluloses having a high amorphous content are usually more easily digested by enzymes, it is unclear, based on studies published in the literature, whether CI actually provides a clear indication of the digestibility of a cellulose sample. Cellulose accessibility should be affected by crystallinity, but is also likely to be affected by several other parameters, such as lignin/hemicellulose contents and distribution, porosity, and particle size. Given the methodological dependency of cellulose CI values and the complex nature of cellulase interactions with amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we caution against trying to correlate relatively small changes in CI with changes in cellulose digestibility. In addition, the prediction of cellulase performance based on low levels of cellulose conversion may not include sufficient digestion of the crystalline component to be meaningful.

2,087 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Recent progress in large-area synthesis of monolayer molybdenum disulfide, a new two-dimensional direct-bandgap semiconductor, is paving the way for applications in atomically thin electronics. Little is known, however, about the microstructure of this material. Here we have refined chemical vapor deposition synthesis to grow highly crystalline islands of monolayer molybdenum disulfide up to 120 um in size with optical and electrical properties comparable or superior to exfoliated samples. Using transmission electron microscopy, we correlate lattice orientation, edge morphology, and crystallinity with island shape to demonstrate that triangular islands are single crystals. The crystals merge to form faceted tilt and mirror boundaries that are stitched together by lines of 8- and 4- membered rings. Density functional theory reveals localized mid-gap states arising from these 8-4 defects. We find that mirror boundaries cause strong photoluminescence quenching while tilt boundaries cause strong enhancement. In contrast, the boundaries only slightly increase the measured in-plane electrical conductivity.

1,430 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The small particle size and the ordered surface nanostep structure of the NiO/NaTaO(3):La photocatalyst powder contributed to the highly efficient water splitting into H(2) and O(2).
Abstract: NiO-loaded NaTaO3 doped with lanthanum showed a high photocatalytic activity for water splitting into H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric amount under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of NiO-loaded NaTaO3 doped with lanthanum was 9 times higher than that of nondoped NiO-loaded NaTaO3. The maximum apparent quantum yield of the NiO/NaTaO3:La photocatalyst was 56% at 270 nm. The factors affecting the highly efficient photocatalytic water splitting were examined by using various characterization techniques. Electron microscope observations revealed that the particle sizes of NaTaO3:La crystals (0.1−0.7 μm) were smaller than that of the nondoped NaTaO3 crystal (2−3 μm) and that the ordered surface nanostructure with many characteristic steps was created by the lanthanum doping. The small particle size with a high crystallinity was advantageous to an increase in the probability of the reaction of photogenerated electrons and holes with water molecules toward the recombination. Transmission electron microsc...

1,413 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202249
20211,269
20201,372
20191,394
20181,412
20171,406

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Peggy Cebe

43 papers, 3.9K citations

F. J. Baltá Calleja

28 papers, 718 citations

Nadia Lotti

28 papers, 614 citations

Benjamin S. Hsiao

26 papers, 1.7K citations

Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez

16 papers, 987 citations