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About: Crystallization is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 81999 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1580045 citation(s). The topic is also known as: crystallisation.

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Abstract: A literature review is presented regarding the synthesis, and physicochemical, chemical, and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)(PLA). Poly(lactic acid) exists as a polymeric helix, with an orthorhombic unit cell. The tensile properties of PLA can vary widely, depending on whether or not it is annealed or oriented or what its degree of crystallinity is. Also discussed are the effects of processing on PLA. Crystallization and crystallization kinetics of PLA are also investigated. Solution and melt rheology of PLA is also discussed. Four different power-law equations and 14 different Mark–Houwink equations are presented for PLA. Nuclear magnetic resonance, UV–VIS, and FTIR spectroscopy of PLA are briefly discussed. Finally, research conducted on starch–PLA composites is introduced.

2,891 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We report on the properties of one example of a new family of metallic alloys which exhibit excellent glass forming ability. The critical cooling rate to retain the glassy phase is of the order of 10 K/s or less. Large samples in the form of rods ranging up to 14 mm in diameter have been prepared by casting in silica containers. The undercooled liquid alloy has been studied over a wide range of temperatures between the glass transition temperature and the thermodynamic melting point of the equilibrium crystalline alloy using scanning calorimetry. Crystallization of the material has been studied. Some characteristic properties of the new material are presented. The origins of exceptional glass forming ability of these new alloys are discussed.

2,235 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: EDS results confirmed a systematic increase of Eu content in the as-prepared samples with the increase of nominal europiumcontent in the reaction solution, and crystallinity and crystallite size of the titania particles decreased gradually.
Abstract: Uniform, spherical-shaped TiO2:Eu nanoparticles with different doping concentrations have been synthesized through controlled hydrolysis of titanium tetrabutoxide under appropriate pH and temperature in the presence of EuCl3·6H2O. Through air annealing at 500°C for 2 h, the amorphous, as-grown nanoparticles could be converted to a pure anatase phase. The morphology, structural, and optical properties of the annealed nanostructures were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy [EDS], and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. Optoelectronic behaviors of the nanostructures were studied using micro-Raman and photoluminescence [PL] spectroscopies at room temperature. EDS results confirmed a systematic increase of Eu content in the as-prepared samples with the increase of nominal europium content in the reaction solution. With the increasing dopant concentration, crystallinity and crystallite size of the titania particles decreased gradually. Incorporation of europium in the titania particles induced a structural deformation and a blueshift of their absorption edge. While the room-temperature PL emission of the as-grown samples is dominated by the 5D0 - 7Fj transition of Eu+3 ions, the emission intensity reduced drastically after thermal annealing due to outwards segregation of dopant ions.

2,213 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A set of screening conditions for initial experiments in protein crystallization has been developed, tested, and is herein presented. These solution and precipitant conditions are empirically derived based on known or published crystallization conditions of various proteins in the past, so as to sample as large a range of buffer, pH, additive and precipitant variables as possible, using small amounts of proteins. The 50 crystallization conditions have been tested on 15 previously crystallized proteins, all of which were also crystallized in at least one form by this screen. This method is also shown to be highly successful in the crystallization of proteins which had not previously been crystallized.

2,136 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1971-Polymer
Abstract: Non-isothermal kinetics of the process of nucleation and its growth are derived by extending Avrami's equation. Kinetic analysis of the thermoanalytical data of the process is also described and applied to DSC curves of crystallization obtained by cooling poly(ethylene terephthalate) at constant rates. Crystallization is thought to proceed by nuclei being formed randomly and growing in three-dimensions.

1,975 citations

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