About: CTL* is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 12400 publications have been published within this topic receiving 609406 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that signalling through CD40 can replace CD4+ T-helper cells in priming of helper-dependent CD8+ CTL responses.
Abstract: Although in vivo priming of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generally requires the participation of CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes, the nature of the 'help' provided to CTLs is unknown. One widely held view is that help for CTLs is mediated by cytokines produced by T-helper cells activated in proximity to the CTL precursor at the surface of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). An alternative theory is that, rather than being directly supplied to the CTL by the helper cell, help is delivered through activation of the APC, which can then prime the CTL directly. CD40 and its ligand, CD40L, may activate the APC to allow CTL priming. CD40L is expressed on the surface of activated CD4+ T-helper cells and is involved in their activation and in the development of their effector functions. Ligation of CD40 on the surface of APCs such as dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells greatly increases their antigen-presentation and co-stimulatory capacity. Here we report that signalling through CD40 can replace CD4+ T-helper cells in priming of helper-dependent CD8+ CTL responses. Blockade of CD40L inhibits CTL priming; this inhibition is overcome by signalling through CD40. CD40-CD40L interactions are therefore vital in the delivery of T-cell help for CTL priming.
TL;DR: It is suggested that cellular immunity is involved in the initial control of virus replication in primary HIV-1 infection and a role for CTL in protective immunity to HIV- 1 in vivo is indicated.
Abstract: Virologic and immunologic studies were performed on five patients presenting with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors specific for cells expressing antigens of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Env were detected at or within 3 weeks of presentation in four of the five patients and were detected in all five patients by 3 to 6 months after presentation. The one patient with an absent initial CTL response had prolonged symptoms, persistent viremia, and low CD4+ T-cell count. Neutralizing antibody activity was absent at the time of presentation in all five patients. These findings suggest that cellular immunity is involved in the initial control of virus replication in primary HIV-1 infection and indicate a role for CTL in protective immunity to HIV-1 in vivo.
TL;DR: An algorithm-selected gene signature focused on tumor immune evasion and suppression predicts response to immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma, exceeding the accuracy of current clinical biomarkers.
Abstract: Cancer treatment by immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) can bring long-lasting clinical benefits, but only a fraction of patients respond to treatment. To predict ICB response, we developed TIDE, a computational method to model two primary mechanisms of tumor immune evasion: the induction of T cell dysfunction in tumors with high infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and the prevention of T cell infiltration in tumors with low CTL level. We identified signatures of T cell dysfunction from large tumor cohorts by testing how the expression of each gene in tumors interacts with the CTL infiltration level to influence patient survival. We also modeled factors that exclude T cell infiltration into tumors using expression signatures from immunosuppressive cells. Using this framework and pre-treatment RNA-Seq or NanoString tumor expression profiles, TIDE predicted the outcome of melanoma patients treated with first-line anti-PD1 or anti-CTLA4 more accurately than other biomarkers such as PD-L1 level and mutation load. TIDE also revealed new candidate ICB resistance regulators, such as SERPINB9, demonstrating utility for immunotherapy research.
TL;DR: It is shown that signalling through CD40 on the antigen-presenting cells can replace the requirement for TH cells, indicating that T-cell ‘help’, at least for generation of CTLs by cross-priming, is mediated by signalling throughCD40 onThe antigen- presenting cell.
Abstract: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) which carry the CD8 antigen recognize antigens that are presented on target cells by the class I major histocompatibility complex. CTLs are responsible for the killing of antigen-bearing target cells, such as virus-infected cells. Although CTL effectors can act alone when killing target cells, their differentiation from naive CD8-positive T cells is often dependent on ‘help’ from CD4-positive helper T (TH) cells1,2,3,4. Furthermore, for effective CTL priming, this help must be provided in a cognate manner, such that both the TH cell and the CTL recognize antigen on the same antigen-presenting cell2,4. One explanation for this requirement is that TH cells are needed to convert the antigen-presenting cell into a cell that is fully competent to prime CTL5. Here we show that signalling through CD40 on the antigen-presenting cells can replace the requirement for TH cells, indicating that T-cell ‘help’, at least for generation of CTLs by cross-priming, is mediated by signalling through CD40 on the antigen-presenting cell.
TL;DR: HIV-1-specific CTL activity is a major component of the host immune response associated with the control of virus replication following primary HIV-1 infection and have important implications for the design of antiviral vaccines.
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env-, Gag-, Pol-, Nef-, and Tat-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activities were quantitated temporally in five patients with symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection. A dominant CD8(+)-mediated, major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CTL response to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp160, was noted in four of the five patients studied. The level of HIV-1-specific CTL activity in the five patients paralleled the efficiency of control of primary viremia. Patients who mounted strong gp160-specific CTL responses showed rapid reduction of acute plasma viremia and antigenemia, while in contrast, primary viremia and antigenemia were poorly controlled in patients in whom virus-specific CTL activity was low or undetectable. These results suggest that HIV-1-specific CTL activity is a major component of the host immune response associated with the control of virus replication following primary HIV-1 infection and have important implications for the design of antiviral vaccines.
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