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CUDA Pinned memory

About: CUDA Pinned memory is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1097 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 30198 citation(s).
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Book
31 Dec 2012-
Abstract: Programming Massively Parallel Processors: A Hands-on Approach shows both student and professional alike the basic concepts of parallel programming and GPU architecture. Various techniques for constructing parallel programs are explored in detail. Case studies demonstrate the development process, which begins with computational thinking and ends with effective and efficient parallel programs. Topics of performance, floating-point format, parallel patterns, and dynamic parallelism are covered in depth. This best-selling guide to CUDA and GPU parallel programming has been revised with more parallel programming examples, commonly-used libraries such as Thrust, and explanations of the latest tools. With these improvements, the book retains its concise, intuitive, practical approach based on years of road-testing in the authors' own parallel computing courses. Updates in this new edition include: New coverage of CUDA 5.0, improved performance, enhanced development tools, increased hardware support, and more Increased coverage of related technology, OpenCL and new material on algorithm patterns, GPU clusters, host programming, and data parallelism Two new case studies (on MRI reconstruction and molecular visualization) explore the latest applications of CUDA and GPUs for scientific research and high-performance computing Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 History of GPU Computing 3 Introduction to Data Parallelism and CUDA C 4 Data-Parallel Execution Model 5 CUDA Memories 6 Performance Considerations 7 Floating-Point Considerations 8 Parallel Patterns: Convolutions 9 Parallel Patterns: Prefix Sum 10 Parallel Patterns: Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication 11 Application Case Study: Advanced MRI Reconstruction 12 Application Case Study: Molecular Visualization and Analysis 13 Parallel Programming and Computational Thinking 14 An Introduction to OpenCL 15 Parallel Programming with OpenACC 16 Thrust: A Productivity-Oriented Library for CUDA 17 CUDA FORTRAN 18 An Introduction to C++ AMP 19 Programming a Heterogeneous Computing Cluster 20 CUDA Dynamic Parallelism 21 Conclusions and Future Outlook Appendix A: Matrix Multiplication Host-Only Version Source Code Appendix B: GPU Compute Capabilities

1,591 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This comprehensive test/reference provides a foundation for the understanding and implementation of parallel programming skills which are needed to achieve breakthrough results by developing parallel applications that perform well on certain classes of Graphic Processor Units (GPUs).
Abstract: Programming Massively Parallel Processors. A Hands-on Approach David Kirk and Wen-mei Hwu ISBN: 978-0-12-381472-2 Copyright 2010 Introduction This book is designed for graduate/undergraduate students and practitioners from any science and engineering discipline who use computational power to further their field of research. This comprehensive test/reference provides a foundation for the understanding and implementation of parallel programming skills which are needed to achieve breakthrough results by developing parallel applications that perform well on certain classes of Graphic Processor Units (GPUs). The book guides the reader to experience programming by using an extension to C language, in CUDA which is a parallel programming environment supported on NVIDIA GPUs, and emulated on less parallel CPUs. Given the fact that parallel programming on any High Performance Computer is complex and requires knowledge about the underlying hardware in order to write an efficient program, it becomes an advantage of this book over others to be specific toward a particular hardware. The book takes the readers through a series of techniques for writing and optimizing parallel programming for several real-world applications. Such experience opens the door for the reader to learn parallel programming in depth. Outline of the Book Kirk and Hwu effectively organize and link a wide spectrum of parallel programming concepts by focusing on the practical applications in contrast to most general parallel programming texts that are mostly conceptual and theoretical. The authors are both affiliated with NVIDIA; Kirk is an NVIDIA Fellow and Hwu is principle investigator for the first NVIDIA CUDA Center of Excellence at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Their coverage in the book can be divided into four sections. The first part (Chapters 1–3) starts by defining GPUs and their modern architectures and later providing a history of Graphics Pipelines and GPU computing. It also covers data parallelism, the basics of CUDA memory/threading models, the CUDA extensions to the C language, and the basic programming/debugging tools. The second part (Chapters 4–7) enhances student programming skills by explaining the CUDA memory model and its types, strategies for reducing global memory traffic, the CUDA threading model and granularity which include thread scheduling and basic latency hiding techniques, GPU hardware performance features, techniques to hide latency in memory accesses, floating point arithmetic, modern computer system architecture, and the common data-parallel programming patterns needed to develop a high-performance parallel application. The third part (Chapters 8–11) provides a broad range of parallel execution models and parallel programming principles, in addition to a brief introduction to OpenCL. They also include a wide range of application case studies, such as advanced MRI reconstruction, molecular visualization and analysis. The last chapter (Chapter 12) discusses the great potential for future architectures of GPUs. It provides commentary on the evolution of memory architecture, Kernel Execution Control Evolution, and programming environments. Summary In general, this book is well-written and well-organized. A lot of difficult concepts related to parallel computing areas are easily explained, from which beginners or even advanced parallel programmers will benefit greatly. It provides a good starting point for beginning parallel programmers who can access a Tesla GPU. The book targets specific hardware and evaluates performance based on this specific hardware. As mentioned in this book, approximately 200 million CUDA-capable GPUs have been actively in use. Therefore, the chances are that a lot of beginning parallel programmers can have access to Telsa GPU. Also, this book gives clear descriptions of Tesla GPU architecture, which lays a solid foundation for both beginning parallel programmers and experienced parallel programmers. The book can also serve as a good reference book for advanced parallel computing courses. Jie Cheng, University of Hawaii Hilo

1,475 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper develops a general purpose molecular dynamics code that runs entirely on a single GPU and shows that the GPU implementation provides a performance equivalent to that of fast 30 processor core distributed memory cluster.
Abstract: Graphics processing units (GPUs), originally developed for rendering real-time effects in computer games, now provide unprecedented computational power for scientific applications. In this paper, we develop a general purpose molecular dynamics code that runs entirely on a single GPU. It is shown that our GPU implementation provides a performance equivalent to that of fast 30 processor core distributed memory cluster. Our results show that GPUs already provide an inexpensive alternative to such clusters and discuss implications for the future.

1,440 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Apr 2009-
Abstract: Modern Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) provide sufficiently flexible programming models that understanding their performance can provide insight in designing tomorrow's manycore processors, whether those are GPUs or otherwise. The combination of multiple, multithreaded, SIMD cores makes studying these GPUs useful in understanding tradeoffs among memory, data, and thread level parallelism. While modern GPUs offer orders of magnitude more raw computing power than contemporary CPUs, many important applications, even those with abundant data level parallelism, do not achieve peak performance. This paper characterizes several non-graphics applications written in NVIDIA's CUDA programming model by running them on a novel detailed microarchitecture performance simulator that runs NVIDIA's parallel thread execution (PTX) virtual instruction set. For this study, we selected twelve non-trivial CUDA applications demonstrating varying levels of performance improvement on GPU hardware (versus a CPU-only sequential version of the application). We study the performance of these applications on our GPU performance simulator with configurations comparable to contemporary high-end graphics cards. We characterize the performance impact of several microarchitecture design choices including choice of interconnect topology, use of caches, design of memory controller, parallel workload distribution mechanisms, and memory request coalescing hardware. Two observations we make are (1) that for the applications we study, performance is more sensitive to interconnect bisection bandwidth rather than latency, and (2) that, for some applications, running fewer threads concurrently than on-chip resources might otherwise allow can improve performance by reducing contention in the memory system.

1,432 citations


20


Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Feb 2008-
TL;DR: This work discusses the GeForce 8800 GTX processor's organization, features, and generalized optimization strategies, and achieves increased performance by reordering accesses to off-chip memory to combine requests to the same or contiguous memory locations and apply classical optimizations to reduce the number of executed operations.
Abstract: GPUs have recently attracted the attention of many application developers as commodity data-parallel coprocessors. The newest generations of GPU architecture provide easier programmability and increased generality while maintaining the tremendous memory bandwidth and computational power of traditional GPUs. This opportunity should redirect efforts in GPGPU research from ad hoc porting of applications to establishing principles and strategies that allow efficient mapping of computation to graphics hardware. In this work we discuss the GeForce 8800 GTX processor's organization, features, and generalized optimization strategies. Key to performance on this platform is using massive multithreading to utilize the large number of cores and hide global memory latency. To achieve this, developers face the challenge of striking the right balance between each thread's resource usage and the number of simultaneously active threads. The resources to manage include the number of registers and the amount of on-chip memory used per thread, number of threads per multiprocessor, and global memory bandwidth. We also obtain increased performance by reordering accesses to off-chip memory to combine requests to the same or contiguous memory locations and apply classical optimizations to reduce the number of executed operations. We apply these strategies across a variety of applications and domains and achieve between a 10.5X to 457X speedup in kernel codes and between 1.16X to 431X total application speedup.

974 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20211
20203
20197
20187
201745
201654

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Reuven Bakalash

16 papers, 92 citations

Yaniv Leviathan

9 papers, 50 citations

Wen-mei W. Hwu

6 papers, 3K citations

Offir Remez

6 papers, 22 citations

Koji Nakano

6 papers, 70 citations