Topic

# Current density

About: Current density is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16631 publications have been published within this topic receiving 292371 citations. The topic is also known as: areic electric current.

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors presented theoretical calculations of the large-signal admittance and efficiency achievable in a silicon p-n-v-ns Read IMPATT diode.

Abstract: This paper presents theoretical calculations of the large-signal admittance and efficiency achievable in a silicon p-n-v-ns Read IMPATT diode. A simplified theory is employed to obtain a starting design. This design is then modified to achieve higher efficiency operation as specific device limitations are reached in large-signal (computer) operation. Self-consistent numerical solutions are obtained for equations describing carrier transport, carrier generation, and space-charge balance. The solutions describe the evolution in time of the diode and its associated resonant circuit. Detailed solutions are presented of the hole and electron concentrations, electric field, and terminal current and voltage at various points in time during a cycle of oscillation. Large-signal values of the diode's negative conductance, susceptance, average voltage, and power-generating efficiency are presented as a function of oscillation amplitude for a fixed average current density. For the structure studied, the largest microwave power-generating efficiency (18 percent at 9.6 GHz) has been obtained at a current density of 200 A/cm2, but efficiencies near 10 percent were obtained over a range of current density from 100 to 1000 A/cm2.

2,042 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: These nanocrystal field-effect transistors allow reversible switching between n- and p-transport, providing options for complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuits and enabling a range of low-cost, large-area electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and sensing applications.

Abstract: Initially poorly conducting PbSe nanocrystal solids (quantum dot arrays or superlattices) can be chemically "activated" to fabricate n- and p-channel field effect transistors with electron and hole mobilities of 0.9 and 0.2 square centimeters per volt-second, respectively; with current modulations of about 10(3) to 10(4); and with current density approaching 3 x 10(4) amperes per square centimeter. Chemical treatments engineer the interparticle spacing, electronic coupling, and doping while passivating electronic traps. These nanocrystal field-effect transistors allow reversible switching between n- and p-transport, providing options for complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuits and enabling a range of low-cost, large-area electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and sensing applications.

1,638 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an improved quantitative representation of the magnetic field in the geomagnetosphere is developed, taking into account the effect of warping the tail current sheet in two dimensions due to the geodipole tilt, as well as spatial variations of the current sheet thickness along the Sun-Earth and dawn-dusk directions.

1,595 citations

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Motorola

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that positive gradients, in terms of electron flow, of temperature, current density, or ion diffusion coefficient foreshorten conductor life because they present regions where vacancies condense to form voids.

Abstract: Recently, electromigration has been identified as a potential wear-out failure mode for semiconductor devices employing metal film conductors of inadequate cross-sectional area. A brief survey of electromigration indicates that although the effect has been known for several decades, a great deal of the processes involved is still unknown, especially for complex metals and solute ions. Earlier design equations are improved to account for conductor film cross-sectional area as well as film structure, film temperature, and current density. Design curves are presented which permit the construction of high reliability "infinite life" aluminum conductors for specific conditions of maximum current and temperature stress expected in use. It is also shown that positive gradients, in terms of electron flow, of temperature, current density, or ion diffusion coefficient foreshorten conductor life because they present regions where vacancies condense to form voids.

1,267 citations