Topic

# Curvature

About: Curvature is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 53324 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 981776 citation(s).

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Abstract: New numerical algorithms are devised (PSC algorithms) for following fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, which resemble Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand-sides, by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws. Non-oscillatory schemes of various orders of accuracy are used to solve the equations, providing methods that accurately capture the formation of sharp gradients and cusps in the moving fronts. The algorithms handle topological merging and breaking naturally, work in any number of space dimensions, and do not require that the moving surface be written as a function. The methods can be used also for more general Hamilton-Jacobi-type problems. The algorithms are demonstrated by computing the solution to a variety of surface motion problems.

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12,372 citations

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Abstract: In the novel method presented for modeling the effects of surface tension on fluid motion, the interfaces between fluids with different, color-represented properties are finite-thickness transition regions across which the color varies continuously. A force density proportional to the surface curvature of constant color is defined at each point in the transition region; this force-density is normalized in such a way that the conventional description of surface tension on an interface is recovered when the ratio of local transition-reion thickness to local curvature radius approaches zero. The properties of the method are illustrated by computational results for 2D flows.

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6,624 citations

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Abstract: A new algorithm is presented for obtaining points on a steepest descent path from the transition state of the reactants and products. In mass‐weighted coordinates, this path corresponds to the intrinsic reaction coordinate. Points on the reaction path are found by constrained optimizations involving all internal degrees of freedom of the molecule. The points are optimized so that the segment of the reaction path between any two adjacent points is given by an arc of a circle, and so that the gradient at each point is tangent to the path. Only the transition vector and the energy gradients are needed to construct the path. The resulting path is continuous, differentiable and piecewise quadratic. In the limit of small step size, the present algorithm is shown to take a step with the correct tangent vector and curvature vector; hence, it is a second order algorithm. The method has been tested on the following reactions: HCN→CNH, SiH2+H2→SiH4, CH4+H→CH3+H2, F−+CH3F→FCH3+F−, and C2H5F→C2H4+HF. Reaction paths calculated with a step size of 0.4 a.u. are almost identical to those computed with a step size of 0.1 a.u. or smaller.

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5,131 citations

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Abstract: Our previous algorithm for following reaction paths downhill (J. Chem. Phys. 1989, 90, 2154), has been extended to use mass-weighted internal coordinates. Points on the reaction path are round by constrained optimizations involving the internal degrees or freedom or the molecule. The points are optimized so that the segment or the reaction path between any two adjacent points is described by an arc or a circle in mass-weighted internal coordinates, and so that the gradients (in mass-weighted internals) at the end points or the arc are tangent to the path. The algorithm has the correct tangent vector and curvature vectors in the limit or small step size but requires only the transition vector and the energy gradients; the resulting path is continuous, differentiable, and piecewise quadratic

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4,896 citations

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TL;DR: A mathematical model is formulated which is shown to predict both the qualitative features and the quantitative details observed experimentally in planar, multijoint arm movements, and is successful only when formulated in terms of the motion of the hand in extracorporal space.

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Abstract: This paper presents studies of the coordination of voluntary human arm movements. A mathematical model is formulated which is shown to predict both the qualitative features and the quantitative details observed experimentally in planar, multijoint arm movements. Coordination is modeled mathematically by defining an objective function, a measure of performance for any possible movement. The unique trajectory which yields the best performance is determined using dynamic optimization theory. In the work presented here, the objective function is the square of the magnitude of jerk (rate of change of acceleration) of the hand integrated over the entire movement. This is equivalent to assuming that a major goal of motor coordination is the production of the smoothest possible movement of the hand. Experimental observations of human subjects performing voluntary unconstrained movements in a horizontal plane are presented. They confirm the following predictions of the mathematical model: unconstrained point-to-point motions are approximately straight with bell-shaped tangential velocity profiles; curved motions (through an intermediate point or around an obstacle) have portions of low curvature joined by portions of high curvature; at points of high curvature, the tangential velocity is reduced; the durations of the low-curvature portions are approximately equal. The theoretical analysis is based solely on the kinematics of movement independent of the dynamics of the musculoskeletal system and is successful only when formulated in terms of the motion of the hand in extracorporal space. The implications with respect to movement organization are discussed.

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3,995 citations