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About: Cyanobacteria is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3716 publications have been published within this topic receiving 145910 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Electron microscopic investigations, together with analytical data on cell wall composition and ribosomal structure, have revealed the common denominators, which are fundamental: bacteria and blue-green algae are the only organisms with cells of the procaryotic type.

2,815 citations

02 May 2018
TL;DR: This work focuses on the isolation and culture of Marine Protists from Estuarine, Littoral, Psammolittoral and Sublittoral Waters and the identification, Enumeration, and Diversity of Anaerobic and Microaerobic Protists.
Abstract: Introduction (JE Hobbie) Isolation of Living Cells: Isolation and Enumeration of Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria in Aquatic Habitats (MJ Ferrara-Guerrero, DG Marty, and A Bianchi) Isolation and Culture of Hyperthermophilic Bacteria from Marine and Freshwater Habitats (JA Baross) Isolation of Psychrophilic Bacteria (RY Morita) Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriocytes from a Bivalve-Sulfur Bacterium Symbiosis (SC Hand and AE Anderson) General Techniques for the Isolation and Culture of Marine Protists from Estuarine, Littoral, Psammolittoral, and Sublittoral Waters (JJ Lee) Long-Term Culture of Marine Benthic Protists (PG Carey) Behavior and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic and Microaerobic Protists (BJ Finlay) Culturing Free-Living Marine Phagotrophic Dinoflagellates (EJ Lessard) Enrichment, Isolation, and Culture of Free-Living Heterotrophic Flagellates (DA Caron) Determination of Pressure Effects on Flagellates Isolated from Surface Waters (CM Turley) Isolation, Cloning, and Axenic Culturing of Marine Ciliates (AT Soldo and SA Brickson) Isolation and Laboratory Culture of Marine Oligotrichous Ciliates (DJ Gifford) Extraction of Protists in Aquatic Sediments via Density Gradient Cetrifugation (DM Alongi) Identification, Enumeration, and Diversity: Statistical Analysis of Direct Counts of Microbial Abundance (DL Kirchman) Enumeration and Isolation of Viruses (CA Suttle) Total Count of Viruses in Aquatic Environments (G Bratbak and M Heldal) Improved Sample Preparation for Enumeration of Aggregated Aquatic Substrate Bacteria (MI Velji and LJ Albright) Direct Estimates of Bacterial Numbers in Seawater Samples without Incurring Cell Loss Due to Sample Storage (CM Turley) Total and Specific Bacterial Counts by Simultaneous Staining with DAPI and Fluorochrome-Labeled Antibodies (KA Hoff) Use of RFLPs for the Comparison of Marine Cyanobacteria (SE Douglas) Use of High-Resolution Flow Cytometry to Determine the Activity and Distribution of Aquatic Bacteria (DK Button and BR Robertson) Phytoplankton Analysis Using Flow Cytometry (RJ Olson, ER Zettler, and MD DuRand) Enumeration of Phototrophic Picoplankton by Autofluorescence Microscopy (EA MacIsaac and JG Stockner) Estimating Cell Concentration and Biomass of Autotrophic Plankton Using Microscopy (BC Booth) Preservation and Storage of Samples for Enumeration of Heterotrophic Protists (EB Sherr and BF Sherr) Staining of Heterotrophic Protists for Visualization via Epifluorescence Microscopy (EB Sherr, DA Caron, and BF Sherr) A Quantitative Protargol Stain (QPS) for Ciliates and Other Protists (DJS Montagnes and DH Lynn) Preparation of Pelagic Protists for Electron Microscopy (BSC Leadbeater) A Rapid Technique for the Taxonomy of Methanogenic Bacteria: Comparison of the Methylreductase Subunits (PE Rouviere and CH Kuhner) Extraction of DNA from Soils and Sediments (RM Atlas) Detecting Gene Sequences Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (RM Atlas) Quantitative Description of Microbial Communities Using Lipid Analysis (RH Findlay and FC Dobbs) Single Cell Identification Using Fluorescently Labeled, Ribosomal RNA-Specific Probes (EF DeLong) Immunofluorescence Method for the Detection and Characterization of Marine Microbes (L Campbell) Biomass: The Relationship between Biomass and Volume of Bacteria (S Norland) Microscope Methods for Measuring Bacterial Biovolume: Epifluorescence Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (G Bratbak) Measurement of Carbon and Nitrogen Biomass and Biovolume from Naturally Derived Marine Bacterioplankton (S Lee) Use of Color Image Analysis and Epifluorescence Microscopy to Measure Plankton Biomass (PG Verity and ME Sieracki) Determination of Size and Morphology of Aquatic Bacteria by Automated Image Analysis (R Psenner) Analysis of Microbial Lipids to Determine Biomass and Detect the Response of Sedimentary Microorganisms to Disturbance (FC Dobbs and RH Findlay) Total Microbial Biomass Estimation Derived from the Measurement of Particulate Adenosine-5'-Triphosphate (DM Karl) Microphytobenthic Biomass Measurement Using HPLC and Conventional Pigment Analysis (C Riaux-Gobin and B Klein) Microphotometric Analysis of the Spectral Absorption and Fluorescence of Individual Phytoplankton Cells and Detrital Matter (R Iturriaga and SL Bower) Measurement of Elemental Content and Dry Weight of Single Cells: X-Ray Microanalysis (M Heldal) Activity, Respiration, and Growth: Microautoradiographic Detection of Microbial Activity (KR Carman) 14C Tracer Method for Measuring Microbial Activity in Deep-Sea Sediments (JW Deming) Evaluating Bacterial Activity from Cell-Specific Ribosomal RNA Content Measured with Oligonucleotide Probes (PF Kemp, S Lee, and J LaRoche) Use of Fluorogenic Model Substrates for Extracellular Enzyme Activity (EEA) Measurement of Bacteria (H-G Hoppe) Photoassimilation of Acetate by Algae (RL Cuhel) Starvation-Survival Strategies in Bacteria (RY Morita) Community Respiration Measurements Using a Pulsed O2 Electrode (C Langdon) Sediment Community Production and Respiration Measurements: The Use of Microelectrodes and Bell Jars (PAG Hofman and SA de Jong) Distinguishing Bacterial from Nonbacterial Decomposition of Spartina alterniflora by Respirometry (DE Padgett) Microbial RNA and DNA Synthesis Derived from the Assimilation of [2,3H]-Adenine (DM Karl) Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Total Adenine Nucleotide (TAN) Pool Turnover Rates as Measures of Energy Flux and Specific Growth Rate in Natural Populations of Microorganisms (DM Karl) Estimating Production of Heterotrophic Bacterioplankton via Incorporation of Tritiated Thymidine (RI Bell) Thymidine Incorporation into DNA as an Estimate of Sediment Bacterial Production (S Findlay) Leucine Incorporation as a Measure of Biomass Production by Heterotrophic Bacteria (D Kirchman) Estimating Conversion Factors for the Thymidine and Leucine Methods for Measuring Bacterial Production (DL Kirchman and HW Ducklow) Bacterial Production in Anaerobic Water Columns (C Pedros-Alio, JG Cantizano, and JI Calderon) Production of Heterotrophic Bacteria Inhabiting Marine Snow (A Alldredge) Bacterial Growth Rates Measured by Pulse Labeling (P La Rock and J-H Hyun) Utilization of Amino Acids and Precursors for Amino Acid De Novo Synthesis by Planktonic Bacteria (M Simon) Dialysis Bag Incubation as a Nonradiolabeling Technique to Estimate Bacterioplankton Production In Situ (GJ Herndl, E Kaltenbock, and G Muller-Niklas) Growth Rates of Natural Populations of Heterotrophic Nanoplankton (GB McManus) The Labeled Chlorophyll a Technique for Determining Photoautotrophic Carbon-Specific Growth Rates and Carbon Biomass (DG Redalje) Incorporation of 14CO2 into Protein as an Estimate of Phytoplankton N-Assimilation and Relative Growth Rate (GR DiTullio) Membrane-Containing Fungal Mass and Fungal Specific Growth Rate in Natural Samples (SY Newell) Organic Matter Decomposition and Nutrient Regeneration: Radiotracer Approaches for the Study of Plant Polymer Biodegradation (R Benner) Estimating Degradation Rates of Chitin in Aquatic Samples (MT Montgomery and DL Kirchman) Measurement of Dimethylsulfide (DMS) and Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in Seawater and Estimation of DMA Turnover Rates (RP Kiene) Sulfate Assimilation by Aquatic Microorganisms (RL Cuhel) Determination of Nitrogenase Activity in Aquatic Samples Using the Acetylene Reduction Procedure (DG Capone) Denitrification and Nitrification Rates in Aquatic Sediments (SP Seitzinger) Turnover of 15NH4+ Tracer in Sediments (TH Blackburn) Microbial Cycling of Inorganic and Organic Phosphorus in the Water Column (JW Ammerman) Food Webs and Trophic Interactions: Approaches for Measuring Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes in Bacteria (RB Coffin and LA Cifuentes) Bacterial Sinking Losses (C Pedros-Alio and J Mas) Methods for the Observation and Use in Feeding Experiments of Microbial Exopolymers (AW Decho) Protistan Grazing Rates via Uptake of Fluorescently Labeled Prey (EB Sherr and BF Sherr) Grazing Rate of Bacterioplankton via Turnover of Genetically Marked Minicells (J Wikner) Estimating Rates of Growth and Grazing Mortality of Phytoplankton by the Dilution Method (MR Landry) Consumption of Protozoa by Copepods Feeding on Natural Microplankton Assemblages (DJ Gifford) Predation on Planktonic Protists Assessed by Immunochemical Assays (MD Ohman) Absorption of Microbes by Benthic Macrofauna by the 14C:51Cr Dual-Labeling Method (G Lopez) Radioisotope Technique to Quantify In Situ Microbivory by Meiofauna in Sediments (PA Montagna) Index

1,446 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Lynn Sagan1
TL;DR: During the course of the evolution of mitosis, photosynthetic plastids were symbiotically acquired by some of these protozoans to form the eukaryotic algae and the green plants.
Abstract: A theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells ("higher" cells which divide by classical mitosis) is presented. By hypothesis, three fundamental organelles: the mitochondria, the photosynthetic plastids and the (9+2) basal bodies of flagella were themselves once free-living (prokaryotic) cells. The evolution of photosynthesis under the anaerobic conditions of the early atmosphere to form anaerobic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and eventually blue-green algae (and protoplastids) is described. The subsequent evolution of aerobic metabolism in prokaryotes to form aerobic bacteria (protoflagella and protomitochondria) presumably occurred during the transition to the oxidizing atmosphere. Classical mitosis evolved in protozoan-type cells millions of years after the evolution of photosynthesis. A plausible scheme for the origin of classical mitosis in primitive amoeboflagellates is presented. During the course of the evolution of mitosis, photosynthetic plastids (themselves derived from prokaryotes) were symbiotically acquired by some of these protozoans to form the eukaryotic algae and the green plants. The cytological, biochemical and paleontological evidence for this theory is presented, along with suggestions for further possible experimental verification. The implications of this scheme for the systematics of the lower organisms is discussed.

1,409 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Val H. Smith1
12 Aug 1983-Science
TL;DR: An analysis of growing season data from 17 lakes throughout the world suggests that the relative proportion of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) in the epilimnetic phytoplankton is dependent on the epILimnetic ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus.
Abstract: An analysis of growing season data from 17 lakes throughout the world suggests that the relative proportion of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) in the epilimnetic phytoplankton is dependent on the epilimnetic ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus. Blue-green algae tended to be rare when this ratio exceeded 29 to 1 by weight, suggesting that modification of this ratio by control of nutrient additions may provide a means by which lake water quality can be managed.

1,392 citations

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