scispace - formally typeset
Topic

Cycloaddition

About: Cycloaddition is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 39904 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 728711 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Cycloaddition reaction.
Papers
More filters


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel regiospecific copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkynes to azides on solid-phase is reported, and the X-ray structure of 2-azido-2-methylpropanoic acid has been solved, to yield structural information on the 1, 3-dipoles entering the reaction.
Abstract: The cycloaddition of azides to alkynes is one of the most important synthetic routes to 1H-[1,2,3]-triazoles. Here a novel regiospecific copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkynes to azides on solid-phase is reported. Primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl azides, aryl azides, and an azido sugar were used successfully in the copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition producing diversely 1,4-substituted [1,2,3]-triazoles in peptide backbones or side chains. The reaction conditions were fully compatible with solid-phase peptide synthesis on polar supports. The copper(I) catalysis is mild and efficient (>95% conversion and purity in most cases) and furthermore, the X-ray structure of 2-azido-2-methylpropanoic acid has been solved, to yield structural information on the 1,3-dipoles entering the reaction. Novel Fmoc-protected amino azides derived from Fmoc-amino alcohols were prepared by the Mitsunobu reaction.

6,918 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Aug 2008-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The basis for the unique properties and rate enhancement for triazole formation under Cu(1) catalysis should be found in the high ∆G of the reaction in combination with the low character of polarity of the dipole of the noncatalyzed thermal reaction, which leads to a considerable activation barrier.
Abstract: The Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of organic azides and alkynes has gained considerable attention in recent years due to the introduction in 2001 of Cu(1) catalysis by Tornoe and Meldal, leading to a major improvement in both rate and regioselectivity of the reaction, as realized independently by the Meldal and the Sharpless laboratories. The great success of the Cu(1) catalyzed reaction is rooted in the fact that it is a virtually quantitative, very robust, insensitive, general, and orthogonal ligation reaction, suitable for even biomolecular ligation and in vivo tagging or as a polymerization reaction for synthesis of long linear polymers. The triazole formed is essentially chemically inert to reactive conditions, e.g. oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis, and has an intermediate polarity with a dipolar moment of ∼5 D. The basis for the unique properties and rate enhancement for triazole formation under Cu(1) catalysis should be found in the high ∆G of the reaction in combination with the low character of polarity of the dipole of the noncatalyzed thermal reaction, which leads to a considerable activation barrier. In order to understand the reaction in detail, it therefore seems important to spend a moment to consider the structural and mechanistic aspects of the catalysis. The reaction is quite insensitive to reaction conditions as long as Cu(1) is present and may be performed in an aqueous or organic environment both in solution and on solid support.

3,558 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A strain-promoted [3 + 2] cycloaddition between cyclooctynes and azides that proceeds under physiological conditions without the need for a catalyst was demonstrated by selective modification of biomolecules in vitro and on living cells, with no apparent toxicity.
Abstract: Selective chemical reactions that are orthogonal to the diverse functionality of biological systems have become important tools in the field of chemical biology. Two notable examples are the Staudinger ligation of azides and phosphines and the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (“click chemistry”). The Staudinger ligation has sufficient biocompatibility for performance in living animals but suffers from phosphine oxidation and synthetic challenges. Click chemistry obviates the requirement of phosphines, but the Cu(I) catalyst is toxic to cells, thereby precluding in vivo applications. Here we present a strain-promoted [3 + 2] cycloaddition between cyclooctynes and azides that proceeds under physiological conditions without the need for a catalyst. The utility of the reaction was demonstrated by selective modification of biomolecules in vitro and on living cells, with no apparent toxicity.

1,903 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The copper-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction between azides and alkynes functions efficiently in aqueous solution in the presence of a tris(triazolyl)amine ligand to make rapid and reliable covalent connections to micromolar concentrations of protein decorated with either of the reactive moieties.
Abstract: The copper-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction between azides and alkynes functions efficiently in aqueous solution in the presence of a tris(triazolyl)amine ligand. The process has been employed to make rapid and reliable covalent connections to micromolar concentrations of protein decorated with either of the reactive moieties. The chelating ligand plays a crucial role in stabilizing the Cu(I) oxidation state and protecting the protein from Cu(triazole)-induced denaturation. Because the azide and alkyne groups themselves are unreactive with protein residues or other biomolecules, their ligation is of potential utility as a general bioconjugation method.

1,530 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Regioselectivity

22.4K papers, 465.9K citations

99% related
Aryl

95.6K papers, 1.3M citations

98% related
Nucleophile

30.8K papers, 602.8K citations

98% related
Electrophile

11.8K papers, 260.4K citations

98% related
Enantioselective synthesis

58.1K papers, 1.6M citations

98% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202210
20211,077
20201,088
20191,112
20181,130
20171,190

Top Attributes

Show by:

Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Albert Padwa

244 papers, 6.2K citations

Raghavachary Raghunathan

116 papers, 1.2K citations

Luis R. Domingo

104 papers, 2.2K citations

Barry M. Trost

103 papers, 4.2K citations

Albert Padwa

95 papers, 1.7K citations