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Cystine

About: Cystine is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5228 publications have been published within this topic receiving 156941 citations. The topic is also known as: (-)-cystine & cystine.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a reduction agent was used to destroy the excess performic acid before the initial reaction, and the subsequent exposure of cysteic acid residues to bromine would not be likely to be detrimental.

3,003 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter describes the chromatographic determination of amino acids by the use of automatic recording equipments and suggests that air-oxidation of cysteine in the hydrolyzate to cystine, before chromatography, is desirable in order to obtain a more accurate value for the total cyStine + cySteine content of the protein.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter describes the chromatographic determination of amino acids by the use of automatic recording equipments. Quantitative determination of amino acids bears a relationship to the chemistry of proteins similar to that which elementary analysis bears to the chemistry of simpler organic molecules. As the precision of analytical methods for the determination of amino acids has increased, the limiting factor in deriving the amino acid composition of a protein has become the extent to which the composition of the hydrolyzate is a true reflection of the composition of the parent protein. For the highest recovery of S-carboxymethylcysteine and tyrosine, it is desirable to remove the traces of dissolved air in the HCl before the tube is sealed. The results from a typical chromatographic analysis of a hydrolyzate of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A are presented. Air-oxidation of cysteine in the hydrolyzate to cystine, before chromatography, is desirable in order to obtain a more accurate value for the total cystine + cysteine content of the protein and also because cysteine may interfere with the determination of proline.

1,592 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Dean P. Jones1
TL;DR: From a mechanistic standpoint, oxidative stress may be better defined as a disruption of redox signaling and control and adoption of such a definition could redirect research to identify key perturbations of red Oxidative stress-related disease processes and lead to new treatments for oxidative stressed disease processes.
Abstract: Oxidative stress is often defined as an imbalance of pro-oxidants and antioxidants, which can be quantified in humans as the redox state of plasma GSH/GSSG. Plasma GSH redox in humans becomes oxidized with age, in response to oxidative stress (chemotherapy, smoking), and in common diseases (type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease). However, data also show that redox of plasma GSH/GSSG is not equilibrated with the larger plasma cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) pool, indicating that the "balance" of pro-oxidants and antioxidants cannot be defined by a single entity. The major cellular thiol/disulfide systems, including GSH/GSSG, thioredoxin- 1 (-SH2/-SS-), and Cys/CySS, are not in redox equilibrium and respond differently to chemical toxicants and physiologic stimuli. Individual signaling and control events occur through discrete redox pathways rather than through mechanisms that are directly responsive to a global thiol/disulfide balance such as that conceptualized in the common definition of oxidative stress. ...

1,438 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1989-Neuron
TL;DR: Glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in N18-RE-105 cells is due to inhibition of cystine uptake, resulting in lowered glutathione levels leading to oxidative stress and cell death.

966 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023108
2022104
202155
202059
201948
201864