About: Cytokinin is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5279 publications have been published within this topic receiving 196281 citations. The topic is also known as: cytokinins.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The results are consistent with the hypothesis that cytokinins have central, but opposite, regulatory functions in root and shoot meristems and indicate that a fine-tuned control of catabolism plays an important role in ensuring the proper regulation of cytokinin functions.
Abstract: Cytokinins are hormones that regulate cell division and development. As a result of a lack of specific mutants and biochemical tools, it has not been possible to study the consequences of cytokinin deficiency. Cytokinin-deficient plants are expected to yield information about processes in which cytokinins are limiting and that, therefore, they might regulate. We have engineered transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress individually six different members of the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (AtCKX) gene family and have undertaken a detailed phenotypic analysis. Transgenic plants had increased cytokinin breakdown (30 to 45% of wild-type cytokinin content) and reduced expression of the cytokinin reporter gene ARR5:GUS (beta-glucuronidase). Cytokinin deficiency resulted in diminished activity of the vegetative and floral shoot apical meristems and leaf primordia, indicating an absolute requirement for the hormone. By contrast, cytokinins are negative regulators of root growth and lateral root formation. We show that the increased growth of the primary root is linked to an enhanced meristematic cell number, suggesting that cytokinins control the exit of cells from the root meristem. Different AtCKX-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were localized to the vacuoles or the endoplasmic reticulum and possibly to the extracellular space, indicating that subcellular compartmentation plays an important role in cytokinin biology. Analyses of promoter:GUS fusion genes showed differential expression of AtCKX genes during plant development, the activity being confined predominantly to zones of active growth. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that cytokinins have central, but opposite, regulatory functions in root and shoot meristems and indicate that a fine-tuned control of catabolism plays an important role in ensuring the proper regulation of cytokinin functions.
TL;DR: This result demonstrates that endogenously produced cytokinin can regulate senescence and provides a system to specifically manipulate the senescences program.
Abstract: Controlling expression of IPT, a gene encoding isopentenyl transferase (the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cytokinin biosynthesis), with a senescence-specific promoter results in the suppression of leaf senescence. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing this chimeric gene do not exhibit the developmental abnormalities usually associated with IPT expression because the system is autoregulatory. Because sufficient cytokinin is produced to retard senescence, the activity of the senescence-specific promoter is attenuated. Senescence-retarded leaves exhibit a prolonged, photosynthetically active life-span. This result demonstrates that endogenously produced cytokinin can regulate senescence and provides a system to specifically manipulate the senescence program.
TL;DR: Thidizuron (TDZ) is among the most active cytokinin-like substances for woody plant tissue culture and facilitates efficient micropropagation of many recalcitrant woody species.
Abstract: Thidizuron (TDZ) is among the most active cytokinin-like substances for woody plant tissue culture. It facilitates efficient micropropagation of many recalcitrant woody species. Low concentrations (<1 µM) can induce greater axillary proliferation than many other cytokinins; however, TDZ may inhibit shoot elongation. In some cases it is necessary to transfer shoots to an elongation medium containing a lower level of TDZ and/or a less active cytokinin. At concentrations higher than 1 µM, TDZ can stimulate the formation of callus, adventitious shoots or somatic embryos. Subsequent rooting of microshoots may be unaffected or slightly inhibited by prior exposure to TDZ. The main undesirable side effect of TDZ is that cultures of some species occasionally form fasciated shoots. The high cytokinin activity and positive response of woody species to TDZ have established it as among the most active cytokinins forin vitro manipulation of many woody species.
TL;DR: It is suggested that cytokinins are an important regulatory factor of plant meristem activity and morphogenesis, with opposing roles in shoots and roots.
Abstract: Cytokinins are a class of plant-specific hormones that play a central role during the cell cycle and influence numerous developmental programs. Because of the lack of biosynthetic and signaling mutants, the regulatory roles of cytokinins are not well understood. We genetically engineered cytokinin oxidase expression in transgenic tobacco plants to reduce their endogenous cytokinin content. Cytokinin-deficient plants developed stunted shoots with smaller apical meristems. The plastochrone was prolonged, and leaf cell production was only 3–4% that of wild type, indicating an absolute requirement of cytokinins for leaf growth. In contrast, root meristems of transgenic plants were enlarged and gave rise to faster growing and more branched roots. These results suggest that cytokinins are an important regulatory factor of plant meristem activity and morphogenesis, with opposing roles in shoots and roots.
TL;DR: Experiments with pure plant hormones showed that gibberellin causes increased production of lateral roots, andIndole acetic acid and indole lactic acid were produced by A. brasilense from tryptophan, and combinations of these substances produced changes in root morphology of pearl millet similar to those produced by inoculated plants.
Abstract: Azospirillum brasilense, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium found in the rhizosphere of various grass species, was investigated to establish the effect on plant growth of growth substances produced by the bacteria. Thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and bioassay were used to separate and identify plant growth substances produced by the bacteria in liquid culture. Indole acetic acid and indole lactic acid were produced by A. brasilense from tryptophan. Indole acetic acid production increased with increasing tryptophan concentration from 1 to 100 μg/ml. Indole acetic acid concentration also increased with the age of the culture until bacteria reached the stationary phase. Shaking favored the production of indole acetic acid, especially in a medium containing nitrogen. A small but biologically significant amount of gibberellin was detected in the culture medium. Also at least three cytokinin-like substances, equivalent to about 0.001 μg of kinetin per ml, were present. The morphology of pearl millet roots changed when plants in solution culture were inoculated. The number of lateral roots was increased, and all lateral roots were densely covered with root hairs. Experiments with pure plant hormones showed that gibberellin causes increased production of lateral roots. Cytokinin stimulated root hair formation, but reduced lateral root production and elongation of the main root. Combinations of indole acetic acid, gibberellin, and kinetin produced changes in root morphology of pearl millet similar to those produced by inoculation with A. brasilense. Images
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